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raftsmen, woodchoppers, owners and managers of log and timber camps, fishermen, and oystermen (combined), number 21,351 in the four States mentioned, or 1.7 per cent of the occupations reported in this group; in North Dakota, however, there are only 97 persons engaged in all these occupations. Not only do they constitute an almost negligible number, absolutely, but they comprise only sevenhundredths of 1 per cent of the occupations in the “ agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry” group.

In these four Eastern States the “manufacturing” group comprises nearly two-fifths of the total (39.8 per cent), instead of less than one-tenth (9.8 per cent), as in North Dakota. Clerical occupations also occupy a far more important place in the four States (6.8 per cent) than in North Dakota (1.9 per cent).

RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES. In the following pages certain tables are presented showing comparative figures for the 48 States of the Union with respect to resources available for educational purposes. The tables are based on data given in the reports of the Census Bureau and the Commissioner of Education.

From Table 9 it appears that North Dakota ranks seventh from the top in average value of property per child of school age. With an average property value of $10,900 on which to draw for the education of each child 5 to 18 years of age, North Dakota has, in this respect, more than five times the resources of the lowest State in the list.

Supplementing the analysis already given of the age distribution of the population in North Dakota (see Table 2 and figures 2 and 3), another view of the conditions as they affect the problem of education is afforded in Table 10, which compares the 48 States by the number of men 21 years of age and over for each 100 children of school age.

North Dakota, ranking thirty-first in the list, with 93 men to 100 children, thus has considerably more children to be educated than there are men of income-producing years. Only 16 States have a smaller proportion of men over 21 years of age, while the State ranking highest has nearly twice as many.

Comparing the amounts expended for public schools for each adult male, North Dakota ranks second, with $33.52. (Table 11.) In amount expended for public schools in proportion to wealth it ranks twenty-sixth. (Table 12.) Apparently the State can, without undue stress, tax itself more heavily than it now does for the support of higher education.

According to Table 13, North Dakota, with $34.17, ranks ninth in the amount expended on public schools for each child of school age.

North Dakota ranks ninth also in receipts of higher educational institutions per capita of population, with $2.17. (Table 14.)

TABLE 9.—Value of property, by States, TABLE 10.-Number of men 21 years of

for each child 5-18 years of age age and over, by States, for each (1913).

100 children 5 to 18 years of age

(1910). 1. Nevada $28, 400 1. Nevada

180 2. California.

15, 500
2. Wyoming

179 3. Iowa--

12, 700
3. California

169 4. Montana

12, 300
4. Montana

165 5. Colorado

11, 100
5. Washington

151 6. Oregon.--

11, 100
6. Oregon.

148 7. North Dakota

10, 900
7. Arizona

129 8. Nebraska

10, 700
8. Colorado

125 9. Washington

10, 400
9. New Hampshire--

123 10. Wyoming

10, 200
10. Maine.

120 11. Illinois 10,000 11. Vermont

119 12. New York..

9, 900
12. New York..

117 13. Vermont

9, 500
13. Massachusetts-

116 14. Kansas

9, 400
14. Connecticut

115 15. Minnesota.

8, 900
15. Idaho---

113 16. Arizona--

8, 600
16. Ohio.--

113 17. New Jersey

8, 100
17. Rhode Island.

111 18. Connecticut

7, 900
18. New Jersey

110 19. South Dakota

7, 500
19. Michigan.--

109 20. Massachusetts--7, 300 20. Illinois

108 21. Ohio ----

7, 300
21. Delaware

107 22. Oklahoma..

7, 300
22. Indiana.

106 23. Indiana.

7, 200
23. Pennsylvania.

105 24. Michigan.

7, 100
24. Minnesota.-

99 25. Pennsylvania.

6, 900
25. Iowa.

98 26. Rhode Island

6, 600
26. Kansas

98 27. Wisconsin.-

6, 400
27. Missouri

98 28. New Hampshire

6, 300
28. South Dakota

96 29. Missouri

6, 300
29. Nebraska..

95 30. Utah

6, 300
30. Maryland

94 31. Idaho--

5, 900
31. North Dakota..

93 32. Maine

5, 900

32. Wisconsin 33. West Virginia

5, 800
33. New Mexico_

88 34. Delaware

5, 700
34. Florida.--

87 35. Maryland

5, 700
35. Utah..

85 36. Texas.

5, 000
36. West Virginia.

84 37. New Mexico

4, 700
37. Kentucky

79 38. Florida

4, 300
38. Oklahoma.

78 39. Louisiana

3, 800
39. Tennessee.

74 40. Arkansas.

3, 400
40. Virginia.

74 41. Virginia

3, 400
41. Texas --

72 42. Kentucky

3, 100
42. Arkansas.

70 43. Alabama

2, 900
43. Louisiana

70 44. Tennessee.

2, 700
44. Alabama

67 45. Georgia

2, 600
45. Georgia -

66 46. South Carolina..

2, 500
46. Mississippi

65 47. North Carolina

2, 200

47. North Carolina. 48. Mississippi.--2, 100 48. South Carolina

58

93

63

.91

.68

TABLE `12. Amount expended for

higher education, by States, for each $1,000 of wealth.

[Based on the estimated true value of all property, U. S. Census, 1912, and total receipts of universities and normal schools as shown in the Report of the Com ner Education, 1913–14.) 1. Delaware

$3. SS 2. New Hampshire

1.81 3. Massachusetts

1. 47 4. Virginia

1.37 Wisconsin

1. 27 6. Connecticut

1.2.3 7. Arizona

1. 23 8. South Carolina

1. 21 9. Maryland

.95 10. North Carolina 11. Maine.

92 12. Mississippi

. 87 13. Tennessee

. 80 14. Minnesota.

. 79 15. New York,

. 74 16. Michigan.

. 73 17. South Dakota

.72 18. Idaho

.71 19. Utah..

. 70 20. California. 21. Illinois.

.68 22. Oregon-

. 67 23. Alabama.

.65 24. Washington

.64 25. Georgia

.61 26. North Dakota..

.61 27. New Mexico_

.60 28. Vermont

. 60 29. Ohio

. 56 30. Rhode Island.

. 56 31. Wyoming32. Louisiana

. 55 33. Pennsylvania. 34. Kansas

.53 35. Iowa.

. 51 36. Nebraska.

.51 37. Colorado 38. Kentucky

TABLE 11.- Amount expended for pub

lic schools (1912-13), by States, for each adult male (1910).

1. Utah.
2. North Dakota.
3. Idaho----
4. New Jersey
5. Washington
6. Montana
7. California..
8. Nebraska
9. Minnesota
10. Colorado_
11. Iowa
12. Oregon.
13. Arizona.
14. South Dakota -
15. Indiana---
16. Massachusetts.
17. Kansas
18. New York
19. Illinois
20. Michigan
21. Ohio-----
22. Pennsylvania
23. Connecticut
24. Wisconsin----
25. Oklahoma.
26. Vermont
27. Rhode Island...
28. Wyoming
29. Missouri
30. Nevada
31. Maine
32. West Virginia.
33. Texas
34. Maryland ---
35. New Hampshire_-
36. Florida
37. New Mexico
38. Kentucky
39. Louisiana_
40. Arkansas-
41. Tennessee.
42. Virginia
43. Delaware
44. Georgia
45. North Carolina_
46. Alabama
47. South Carolina
48. Mississippi.----

$38. 67
33. 52
32. 55
29. 36
28. 54
28. 50
27. 76
26. 07
24. 54
24. 02
23. 57
23. 50
23. 34
23. 28
23. 15
22. 96
22. 23
21. 87
21. 82
21. 56
21. 11
20. 17
19. 66
18. 56
$17.99
17. 10
16. 95
16. 72
15. 96
15. 62
15. 27
14. 99
14. 44
13. 55
13. 55
12. 29
11. 79
11. 77
11. 76
10. 81
10. 61
10. 47
9. 85
8. 70
8. 03
7. 94
7. 68
6. 57

.50 39. Texas.

. 49 40. Montana.

. 48 41. Nevada

.47 42. Florida

44 43. Indiana

. 42 44. Missouri

42 45. New Jersey-

. 39 46. West Virginia

. 39 47. Arkansas..

. 30 48. Oklahoma

. 19 TABLE 13.- Amount expended on pub

. 56

.50 $49. 58

lic schools, by States, for each child 5 to 18 years of age (1913-14).

1. California.. 2. Montana 3. Nevada 4. Washington 5. Arizona 6. Utah 7. Oregon 8. New Jersey 9. North Dakota. 10. Idaho -11. Wyoming 12. Massachusetts 13. Colorado 14. Minnesota. 15. Nebraska 16. Ohio 17. Connecticut 18. New York 19. Indiana 20. Iowa 21. Illinois 22. Kansas 23. Michigan 24. Pennsylvania 25. South Dakota 26. Maine 27. Vermont 28. New Hampshire 29. Rhode Island 30. Wisconsin 31. Missouri 32. Maryland 33.• West Virginia 34. Oklahoma 35. New Mexico 36. Florida 37. Delaware 38. Texas 39. Kentucky 40. Louisiana 41. Tennessee 42. Virginia 43. Arkansas 4.1. North Carolina 45. Alabama 16. Georgia 47. South Carolina. 48. Mississippi

41. 48 40. 73 40. 57 37. 15 34. 63 34. 63 34. 47 34. 17 33. 71 33. 13 31. 68 31. 02 30. 78 29. 80 29. 60 29. 39 29. 23 28. 73 28. 17 26. 48 25. S7 25. 66 25. 57 24. 77 23. 68 23. 36 21. 59 20. 97 20, 59 19. 88 15. 70 14. 00 12. 6.) 12. 02 11.81 11. 76 10. 86 9. 76 8. 69 8. 67 8. 54 8. 24 6. 64 6. 22 6. 21 5. 60 4. 53

TABLE 11.-Receipts of higher educa

tional institutions, including normal schools, per capita of population

(1913-14). 1. Delaware.

$5. 65 2. Arizona.

2. 94 3. New Hampshire

2. 62 4. Nevada.--.

2. 53 5. Massachusetts.

2. 51 6. Connecticut..

2. 43 7. Wisconsin..

2. 33 8. California.

2. 30 9. North Dakota.

2. 17 10. Minnesota.

1. 99 11. Oregon.

1.83 12. New York.

1. 77 13. Illinois.

1, 768 14. Iowa.

1. 714 15. Washington..

1. 711 16. South Dakota.

1. 64 17. Nebraska.

1, 54 18. Maryland.

1. 46 19. Virginia

1. 45 20. Montana.

1. 44 21. Colorado.

1. 43 22. Kansas.

1. 38 23. Utah -

1. 38 24. Vermont

1. 35 25. Michigan.

$1. 35 26. Wyoming

1. 32 27. Idaho.

1. 279 28. Maine.

1. 277 29. South Carolina_

1. 04 30. Ohio.-

1.01 31. Pennsylvania.

1. 00 32. Rhode Island. 33. New Mexico.. 34. Texas

.83 35. New Jersey 36. Indiana.

.77 37. North Carolina 38. West Virginia.

. 71 39. Missouri..

. 70 40. Louisiana. 41. Tennessee.

.67 42. Mississippi. 43. Florida. 44. Alabama

57 45. Georgia46. Oklahoma. 47. Kentucky

.47 48. Arkansas.

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Chapter II.

BRIEF OUTLINE OF EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, AS INDICATED

BY CHARACTER AND RESOURCES OF THE STATE.

The foregoing brief survey of the State and its resources, of the people and their occupations, and of their industrial, social, and economic status, indicates, in broad outline at least, the educational needs of the people and what should be expected of the institutions under the control of the board of regents and included in this survey.

A vigorous, democratic, progressive, pioneer people, with an unusually high average of wealth, with little poverty and no class of idle rich, offers the best possible opportunity for universal education of a high standard, ideal and cultured on the one hand and scientific and practical on the other. To this end there is need of a strong and efficient system of elementary and secondary schools in the State, the elementary schools consolidated sufficiently to make possible the best results and the most economical use of funds, and the high schools numerous enough to be within reach of all. The uniformity of conditions and the small variety of occupations emphasize the need for strength and efficiency in the work of the schools rather than for large variety in vocational and prevocational courses. The predominance of rural and agricultural life indicates the need for a larger proportion of teachers trained for the work of the rural schools and for making the work of the schools such as to prepare for success in agricultural pursuits and for intelligent, joyous living in the open country and in small villages and towns. It also indicates the need for some system of public libraries that will serve effectively a rural population.

The large number of rural schools in the State as compared with the number of urban schools, and the character of work needed to be done in these schools, show clearly the task of the normal schools, the school of education in the university, and the department of education in the agricultural college.

The comparatively small number of persons engaged in the professions other than teaching and the ministry indicates the unwisdom of maintaining at present in more than one institution schools or courses intended to prepare men and women for any one of these professions. This would seem to apply with special force to the

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