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tory, woodworking shop, machine drawing, drafting and class rooms, library and offices; the Mining Engineering Building, devoted to the technical work of the college of mining engineering and to the university museum; Woodworth Hall, which houses the school of education, the model high school, and associated work; the Carnegie Library; the Gymnasium and Assembly Hall; the Commons Building; Davis Hall, a dormitory for women with rooms for the Women's League, literary societies, and amusement; Macnie Hall, a dormitory for women; Budge Hall, a dormitory for men; the president's house; and a power house containing central heating and lighting plants.
There is already need for other buildings, and as the work and attendance of the university grow still others will be needed. Here, as elsewhere, it is very important that all buildings should be located and erected after a definite plan, and that they should be built for permanency and with the future development of the institution in mind.
The library of the university, which contained less than 1,000 volumes the first year of the opening of the university, had grown by gift and purchase to 8,000 volumes in 1902, 30,000 volumes and pamphlets in 1908, and 55,843 volumes, including the 8,612 volumes of the law library, in 1916. It is added to at the rate of about 2,500 volumes annually. The Scandinavian collection of more than 3,500 volumes and the James J. Hill railway transportation collection are of special interest. Departmental libraries of biology and medicine, geology, physics, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, mining engineering, and chemistry are installed in the buildings with these departments.
There are laboratories for the biological department and the school of medicine; the public health laboratory; chemical, metallurgical, and mining laboratories; geological, mineralogical, and physical laboratories; mechanical engineering shops and laboratories; and surveying laboratories, all of which are constantly replenished with new apparatus. The university museum contains material for work in geology, zoology, and botany.
For the care of the sick, one room with bath is set aside in each residence hall, and a trained nurse maintains office hours daily. The hospitals of Grand Forks are also easily accessible, but, as the school grows, there will probably be need for a special building for an infirmary on the grounds.
DEPARTMENTS AND COURSES OF STUDY.
The few courses in philosophy, science, and language offered to students below college grade in 1884 have expanded until the catalogue of the university for 1915–16 lists the following colleges, schools, and divisions :
A. The College of Liberal Arts.
The School of Education.
The Model High School.
The College of Mining Engineering (The School of Mines) (1900).
The Course in Civil Engineering (1913).
The School of Medicine.
The Public Health Laboratory.
The Bureau of Educational Cooperation.
The Bureau of Public Service. In these departments more than 700 courses were offered in the announcement for 1915–16, exclusive of the model high school and the summer session. These courses, except for the division of medicine, the school of law, and the graduate department, are summarized briefly as follows:
In the College of Liberal Arts, astronomy, bacteriology and hygiene, biology (botany and zoology), ceramics, chemistry, commercial subjects, economics and political science, education, English language and literature, art and design, music, geology, German language and literature, Greek language and literature, history, home economics, Latin language and literature, law, library science, manual training and mechanical drawing, mathematics, metallurgy and industrial chemistry, philosophy and psychology, physical education, physics, physiology, French language and literature, Spanish language and literature, Italian language and literature, Scandinavian languages and literatures. sociology.
In the School of Education, special courses for the training of teachers in biology, chemistry, commercial subjects, arts and design, domestic science and art, English, French, German, history and civics, Latin, manual training, mathematics, music, physics, physiography, supervision and administration.
In the Law School, all the usual subjects of a first-class legal curriculum.
In the School of Medicine, in addition to the premedical subjects prescribed for the first two years, courses are given in the professional subjects of anatomy, general and special pathology, organic chemistry, embryology, advanced physiology, pharmacology, materia medica, physical diagnosis, surgery, hygiene and sanitation, dietetics, principles of nursing, hospital economics.
In the School of Mines, metallurgy, ore treatment and milling, industrial chemistry, building materials and masonry, mining engineering.
In the School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, descriptive geometry, mechanical drawing, shopwork, bridge design, sanitary engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering.
In the Course in Civil Engineering, surveying, hydraulics, municipal engineering, water supplies.
In addition to the extramural work of the extension division through the bureau of educational cooperation and the bureau of public service, as stated elsewhere, the university also has under its immediate direction the public health laboratory at Grand Forks and its branches at Bismarck and Minot, the biological station at Devils Lake, the mining substation at Hebron, the State geological survey, the United States weather bureau at Grand Forks, and the bureau of public accountancy.
That the expansion of the work of the university has been affected by the growth of the State, and that the university has endeavored to meet all demands as they have risen, is shown by the number of additions made within the last seven years, since the inauguration of the present president years that have also been years of rapid growth and development for the State. Among the additions are the following: 1909. The mining station at Hebron and the biological station at Devils Lake
The university quarterly journal established. 1910. A director of music appointed.
A department of ceramics established.
Federal support obtained for weather bureau. 1911. Course in home economics inaugurated.
Course in art and design inaugurated.
College section of summer session established. 1913. Course in civil engineering established.
In the meantime the preparatory school has been separated from the university and made into a model high school and practice school for the school of education, the graduate department has been developed, a five-year course in engineering has been inaugurated, fellowships and scholarships established, all faculties have been enlarged, material equipment of buildings and laboratories have been added to extensively, and plans for future development have been outlined. The chief danger has been that in the enthusiasm of youth and through the very laudable desire to respond to all demands of a new and growing State, new courses, divisions, and departments would be provided before the demands were sufficient to justify the expense and to the detriment of other work for which there was greater need. It is not the opinion of the survey commission that any of these should now be abandoned except possibly some minor divisions of specialized subjects for which there will probably not be much demand at any time soon. For some work of this kind a new State like North Dakota should not attempt to provide. It is cheaper for the very few students who might be interested in these courses to go for them where they can be given in a more satisfactory manner, with better equipment and probably at less cost. It is important, however, that for the present and the immediate future, the energies of the university should be used in building up departments and courses already in existence.
THE COLLEGES. The college of liberal arts offers four-year curricula leading to the degrees of bachelor of arts and bachelor of science. The courses offered in economics and commerce, in connection with other subjects, provide a university training for business careers.
The school of education provides preparation for teaching, especially in secondary schools. It regularly requires for entrance two years of college work, and its courses of two years lead to the degree of bachelor of arts and the bachelor's diploma in teaching. The latter is valid in law as a first-grade professional certificate. The school of education also grants the teacher's certificate to those who complete two years of college work, academic and professional, above the high school, and this certificate is valid in law as a second-grade professional certificate. Special certificates in music, art and design, manual training, home economics, and commercial subjects are granted to those who have specialized in these lines and who have completed at least two years of college work.
The model high school is under the direction of the school of education and is used for observation and practice teaching, for the study of problems of secondary education, and as a model of high-school organization and instruction.
1 The revised code of 1905 provides for courses of instruction in the university as follows:
“ SECTION 1051. Courses of instruction. The college or department of arts shall embrace courses of instruction in mathematical, physical, and natural sciences, with their application to industrial arts such as agriculture, mechanics, engineering, mining and metallurgy, manufactures, architecture, and commerce; and such branches included in the college of letters as shall be necessary to properly fit the pupils in the scientific and practical courses for their chosen pursuits and in military tactics. In the teachers' college the proper instruction and learning in the theory and art of teaching and all the various branches and subjects needful to qualify for teaching in the common and high schools; provided, that all instruction in the teachers' college shall be above the grade of secondary schools, and as soon as the income of the university will allow, in such order as the wants of the public shall seem to require, the courses of science and their application to the practical arts shall be expanded into distinct colleges of the university, each with its own faculty and appropriate title. The college of letters shall be coexistent with the college of arts and philosophy, together with such courses or parts of courses in the college of arts as the trustees, shall prescribe."
In other sections provision is made for instruction in Scandinavian languages, for a comprehensive geological survey of the State, for the tabulation of meteorological statistics and barometrical observations, for the making of official topographical and statistical maps of the State, and for the collection, preparation, and preservation of botanical, zoological, and mineralogical specimens for the university museum.
The school of law offers a three years' course of study, to which persons who are 18 years of age and graduates of high schools are admitted. The course leads to the degree of bachelor of laws. Students in the college of liberal arts are permitted to offer one year of law toward the degree of bachelor of arts. A graduate in liberal arts from a reputable college or university may receive the degree of Juris Doctor upon the completion of a three years' graduate course in law.
The college of mining engineering offers a four years' course for prospective mining engineers, surveyors, metallurgists, and manufacturing supervisors, leading to the degree of bachelor of science in mining engineering. A five years' course leads to the degree of engineer of mines.
The college of mechanical and electrical engineering offers fouryear courses leading to the degrees of bachelor of science in mechanical engineering and bachelor of science in electrical engineering and five-year courses leading to the degrees of mechanical engineer and electrical engineer.
In connection with the colleges of mechanical and electrical engineering and mining engineering, a course in civil engineering is offered covering four years and leading to the degree of bachelor of science in civil engineering. A five years' course leads to the degree of civil engineer.
The school of medicine offers the first two years only of the medical course. The university has announced that the final two years of medical training will not be offered until the clinical facilities of the institution are adequate to meet the demands of advanced professional training in a satisfactory manner. When these are offered they should be of such nature as to prepare physicians for the rural communities of the State as well as for the more specialized work of the cities. Students are not permitted to begin the first year of medical work until they have completed two years of the liberal arts curriculum. During these two years special emphasis is placed on physics, chemistry, and biology. At the end of the four years the student receives the degree of bachelor of arts and a certificate showing that he has completed two years of the medical course. This certificate is accepted by medical colleges with which the university is affiliated.
The course for nurses, two years in length, offers instruction in the academic and technical subjects which precede the hospital work in the training of nurses.
The graduate department includes in a single organization the advanced work of all the colleges and departments of the university which offer courses leading to the higher degrees. The administration of the department is intrusted to a committee on graduate work,