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under the general direction of the president. Graduate students are permitted to select major subjects only in the college of liberal arts or the school of education. The roster of students for the year 1915-16 contains the names of 12 students in the graduate department. Two degrees of master of arts and two degrees of master of science were conferred in June, 1915. It is stated that the university has thus far conferred but one degree of doctor of philosophy.
The summer session, six weeks in length, is organized in two sections, a college section and an elementary section. In the college section courses are offered in nearly all departments of the university, including special courses in library science, physical education, and fine arts, and credit is given toward university degrees. The elementary section is maintained strictly for the training of teachers. Courses in all the required certificate subjects are offered, as well as in home economics, manual training, agriculture, and music.
The extension division of the university has been instrumental in organizing lyceum entertainment and educational courses throughout the State, and in stimulating the demand for courses of better quality. During the year 1915–16 the division filled 430 lyceum dates, with an aggregate attendance of approximately 90,000 persons. For the year 1916–17 the number of courses booked is 121, with a total of 586 dates. Under this division are enrolled also 127 correspondence students. It also provides for the establishment and maintenance of conferences and community institutes in various parts of the State. The appropriation for this division is at present $2,500 annually.
Graduates of the University of North Dakota are admitted without conditions to the graduate schools of the leading universities of the country; the school of medicine of the university is listed in “Class A" by the American Council for the Advancement of Medical Education; the law school is a member of the Association of American Law Schools; a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established in the college of liberal arts of the university in 1914; and the university is included in the list of American universities recommended to the German Government for the admission of graduate students to foreign universities.
The organization of the university is quite elaborate and in one instance at least the division of authority seems to be extended too far. The survey commission can see no reason why there should be two deans in the division of engineering, one of the college of mining engineering and another of the college of mechanical and electrical engineering. The large number of elements common to all the branches of engineering given in the university and the small number of students in each branch make it all the more desirable that they should be united under one head. The commission has recommended elsewhere that all the engineering be put under the direction of a single dean. The three branches should be merged into one college of engineering under the direction of a dean who shall have under him heads of the different branches.
The fact that the president of the university is a member ex officio of the State high-school board, that the annual high-school conference has been held at the university since 1901, and that the inter-scholastic athletic meets have been held since 1903, have all served to bring together the university and the high schools of the State and to identify their interests. Laboratories and branch laboratories, the substation of the school of mines at Hebron, the university extension work, the work which the university does through the United States Weather Bureau, and more recently through the radio station, not only help the university to serve better and more fully the people of the State, but they have tended also to bring the university and the people closer together and to keep alive the interest of each in the other.
In 1906 the policy of affiliation with other colleges was inaugurated by the location of Wesley College on a campus opposite the campus of the university and by making provision for an exchange of credits on the usual collegiate basis.
· This policy seems to be in the interest of true economy and efficiency and to be worthy of extension. It is commended to State universities and denominational colleges of other States. Through this arrangement students of the denominational college receive the full advantage of opportunities for instruction offered by the university which the college might not be able to offer, and those who attend the university may do so without being deprived of the re. ligious teaching and fellowship of a denominational college.
Members of the teaching staff and administrative officers are employed in different ways. Full professors are appointed permanently, associate professors are appointed for five years, assistant professors for three years, instructors for one year. The general schedule of salaries is as follows: Deans--
$3,000 to $3,500 Full professors
2, 500 to 3, 000 Associate professors
2,000 to 2, 500 Assistant professors-
1, 400 to 2, 000 Instructors.
900 to 1,500 The general policy of the university relative to salary schedules is as follows: That instructors shall receive an increase of pay up to $1,500 at the rate of $100 a year. The same shall be true of other grades of appointment; that is, assistant professors shall have an increase at the rate of $100 a year up to $2,000, etc. It has not been possible to hold regularly to this schedule, due to the fact that the increase in the income of the university has not been sufficiently large to maintain it. In 1905 the dean having the highest salary received $2,500; in 1915 the highest amount paid was $3,200 and the dean having the lowest salary received $2,900. In 1905 the highest paid professor received $2,000 and in 1915, $3,000. In 1905 the highest paid instructor received $1,200 and the lowest paid, $100. In 1915 the highest paid instructor received $1,500 and the lowest paid, $1,100.
Salaries paid at the university have been reasonably liberal as compared with other institutions in this section, but it is evident that the best interests of the university will demand larger salaries and espe. cially a larger number of professors and associates of the higher grades.
THE NORTH DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The first legislative assembly of the State of North Dakota established the North Dakota Agricultural College by an act of March 2, 1890, by accepting the provisions of the Morrill Act of July, 1862. The college, which had been located at Fargo by provision of the State constitution, adopted in 1889, was organized immediately and opened, in rented quarters, October 15, 1890.
LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NORTH
DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The purpose of the school and the character of its work were set forth by the legislature as follows (section 1106, Revised Code of 1905):
SECTION 1106. Course of instruction.—The object of such college shall be to afford practical instruction in agriculture and the natural sciences connected therewith, and in the sciences which bear directly upon all industrial arts and pursuits. The course of instruction shall embrace the English language and literature, military tactics, civil engineering, agricultural chemistry, animal and vegetable anatomy and physiology, the veterinary art, entomology, geology, and such other natural sciences as may be prescribed, political, rural, and household economy, horticulture, moral philosophy, history, bookkeeping, and especially the application of science and the mechanic arts to practical agricul. ture. A full course of study in the institution shall embrace not less than four years, and the college year shall consist of not less than nine calendar montlis, which may be divided into terms by the board of trustees as in its judgment will best secure the objects for which the college was founded.
The Morrill Land-Grant Act of July 2, 1862, under the provisions of which the North Dakota College of Agriculture was established, thus defines the character and scope of instruction intended:
The leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.
By the Session Laws of 1890, chapter 160, section 3, the management of the agricultural college was vested in a board of seven trustees, appointed by the governor for terms of two and four years, all subsequent appointments to be for four years. The powers and duties of the board are outlined in section 6 of the same chapter. This method of control continued in force until the creation of the present State board of regents, in July, 1915.
The following sections of chapter 160 of the special laws of 1890 are of special interest in this study:
SECTION 11. Duties of president.—The president shall be the chief executive officer of the college, and it shall be his duty to see that all rules and regulations are executed, and the subordinate officers and employees not members of the faculty shall be under his direction and supervision.
SEC. 12. Faculty to make annual report to board.—The faculty shall make an annual report to the board of trustees on or before the first Monday of November of each year, showing the condition of the school, experiment station and farm, and the results of farm experiments, and containing such recommendations as the welfare of the institution demands.
The establishment of the agricultural experiment station provided for in section 16, chapter 160, Session Laws of 1890, is reaffirmed in the Revised Code of 1905 and in the Compiled Laws of 1913, as follows:
SEC. 1619. Experiment station.—The agricultural experiment station heretofore established in connection with the agricultural college is continued, and the same shall be under the direction of the board of trustees of such college for the purpose of conducting experiments in agriculture according to the provisions of section 1 of the act of Congress approved March 2, 1887, entitled "An act to establish agricultural experiment stations in connection with the colleges established in the several States under the provisions of an act ap-. proved July 2, 1862, and of the acts supplementary thereto."
FEDERAL ENDOWMENT AND SUPPORT.
At the time North Dakota was admitted to the Union, November 2, 1889, 90,000 acres of land were set aside through the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862, for the benefit of the agricultural college, and, by the enabling act, an additional 40,000 were for the same purpose provided, making a total of 130,000 acres.
By a wise provision of the enabling act, none of this land can be disposed of for less than $10 an acre. Up to this time (1915) the average sale price has been about $13. At this rate this land will afford the agricultural college an endowment considerably in excess of $2,000,000.
In 1890, Senator Justin S. Morrill secured an additional appropriation for the strengthening of the land-grant colleges. Beginning that year, $15,000 was granted to each State and Territory for the maintenance of its agricultural and mechanical college, and that