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passed beyond the experimental stage and has become established as a prophylactic measure of proved efficiency.

Practically all authorities now agree that the practice confers a notable immunity against typhoid infection and reduces by three-quarters the number of cases in localitres where it is adopted.

Under similar conditions typhoid fever occurring in immunized persons is, approximately, only one-half as fatal as in persons not so protected.

Typhoid fever thus is less apt to occur, and when it does occur, runs a milder course among the sick who have been immunized than among those who have not.

Feeling that its wider use, under proper precautions, is called for, the Board of Health of The City of New York on December 10, 1912, authorized the performance of immunization against typhoid fever by its Inspectors, under conditions similar to those governing the free administration of diphtheria antitoxin. Beginning January 1, 1913, inoculations will be made at the homes of applicants or at the Central Office of the Department, Centre and Walker streets, Borough of Manhattan; or the culture will be furnished free to physicians for their own use. All requests for immunization must be made or approved by the attending physician.

Requests for inoculation can be made by telephone or letter to the Division of Communicable Diseases of the Department of Health.

Immunization will be offered to all other members of every family in which a case of typhoid fever occurs.

As at least 10 per cent. of the cases of typhoid fever occurring in New York City are thought to be due to contact, immediate or indirect, with a preceding case in the same locality, and not to infected water or milk, it is hoped that widespread immunization of the members of all such families will sensibly reduce the occurrence oi typhoid fever in New York City.

A circular of information regarding immunization against typhoid fever has been issued, and (together with a leaflet of information regarding the new Diagnostic Clinics for Venereal Diseases of the Department of Health) has been sent to every physician in New York City. These circulars will be supplied to any citizen upon request.

THE HEALTH OF THE CITY IN 1912. The number of deaths reported during the year ending 12 m., December 31, 1912, was 73,008, with a death rate of 14.11 per 1,000 of the population. This number is less by 2,415 deaths reported during the year 1911, and 16,857 deaths less than the average of the immediately preceding decennium, corrected to correspond to increase in population during the previous ten years. It is hardly necessary to say that this is the lowest death rate that the City of New York has ever experienced, and while the figures of the large cities of the world are not yet at hand, it is probable that this rate will compare very favorably with that of any other large city in the world, including London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Chicago and Philadelphia.

Mortality. Compared With the Decennial Average. In order to make a fair comparison the mortality from different causes for the year 1912 has been compared with the corrected decennial averages of the years 1902 to 1911, inclusive. We find that the death rate from typhoid fever has decreased 34 per cent.; smallpox, 95 per cent.; measles, 30 per cent.; scarlet fever, 38 per cent. ; diphtheria and croup, 48 per cent. ; tuberculosis of the lungs, 17 per cent.; other forms of tuberculosis, 11 per cent.; pneumonia (lobar- and broncho-) showed a decrease of 2,678 deaths, compared with the decennial average.

The greatest gain in lives has resulted from the reduced mortality from diarrhoeal diseases under five years of age, the average for the decennium being 6,805, while during the year 1912 the number of deaths reported from this cause was 4,148, a decrease of 2,657 deaths.

Cirrhosis of the liver showed a decrease of 266 deaths, Bright's disease and nephritis, 1.114 deaths; puerperal diseases, 206 deaths; accidental deaths, 687; suicide, 174. Appendicitis showed a slightly decreased mortality of 15 deaths less, cerebro-spinal meningitis, 604 deaths; bronchitis (acute and chronic), 1.042 deaths.

The only causes which showed an increased mortality were cancer, an increase of 295 deaths; homicides, an increase of 57 deaths; organic heart diseases, an increase of 1,455 deaths. This latter increase, however, is offset by a decrease of 1,449 deaths from apoplexy and diseases of the arteries, due to more accurate certification, so that the only two causes that really showed an increased mortality during the year were those of the cancerous and homicidal deaths.

Viewed from the point of age grouping, we find that the mortality was decreased at all ages. The deaths of children under one year of age showed a decrease of 5,159

deaths; of children under five years of age, 8,463 deaths; between the ages of five and sixty-five years, 7,570 deaths; sixty-five years of age and over, 824 deaths.

The decrease among the females reached 20 per cent., whilst that of the males was about 18. The mortality among the colored population was stationary. There were 28,242 deaths reported in the various institutions of the City, a decrease of 658 compared with the decennial average. Deaths reported in tenement houses numbered 30,579, a tremendous decrease of 12,781 deaths being shown in comparison with the decennial average. The death rate for the previous decennium was 17.37, that of the year 1912 being 14.11, giving a decreased rate of 3.26 per 1,000 of the population.

The infant mortality during the year was the lowest ever recorded in the City, 14,289 deaths being reported, which gives a rate of 10!2 per cent., or, as it may be stated, 105 deaths occurred out of every 1,000 children born during the year. This is considerably lower than any of the large cities of the world, with the exception of the City of Paris; not that the credit of lowest infant mortality, however, should be given to this latter city, since the procedure there is to regard as still-born any infant who does not live longer than three days. Another factor in the low mortality of Paris infants is that a considerable number are placed in institutions and homes outside of the city limits, the deaths occurring among these infants not being included among the mortality rates of the city.

Births and Marriages. The number of births reported during the year was 135,625, an increase of 1,083 compared with the returns for the year 1911, but while the returns show an increase in the absolute numbers, still the birth rate for the year, 26.22 per 1,000, is the lowest rate since the year 1906. On the other hand, the number of marriages reported was 52,391, with a rate of 10.13, this being the highest_marriage rate in five years.

The number of still-births reported was 6,617, a decrease of 1,379 compared with the decennial averages.

VITAL STATISTICS

Summary for Week Ending Saturday, 12 m., January 11, 1913.

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Corrected according to borough of residence.

. The presence of several large institutions, the great majority of whose inmates are non-residents of the city, increases considerably the deatb-rate of this Borough.

Deaths by Principal Causes, According to Locality and Age.

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and Over 65 Years

146 18

Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond.......

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Cases of Contagious and Infectious Diseases Reported.

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Tuberculosis

Pulmonalis.) Diphtheria

and Croup.. ) Measles ... Scarlet Fever .. Small-pox.... Varicella Typhoid Fevei Whooping Cough.. Cerebro-Spi. nal Meningitis....

Total......

283

318
412
259
185
52
45

395 304

T 149 30!

280 551 338

2 268 23 26

26 106 25

107

43 112

68
50

116
52

61

170
56

133
21

204
49
31

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* If the deaths under one month, numbering 126 from all causes, be deducted from the total deaths
under one year, the resultant rate will be 45 per 1,000 weekly average births of 1912.

Mortality Among Children, Week Ending January 11, 1913.

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• Includes Small Pox, Measles, Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria and Whooping Cough. Deaths According to Cause, Annual Rate per 1,000 and Age, with Meterology and

Number of Deaths in Public Institutions for 13 Weeks.

Week Ending

Oct. Oct
12

19

Oct. Nov. Nov. Nov. Nov. Nov. Dec. Dec.
26. 2. 9. 16.

23. 30. 7. 1.

Dec. Dec. Jan. Jan. 21. 28 4.

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Total deaths.... 1,393 | 1,243 1,238 1,149 1,302 1,216 1,354 1,251 1,420 1,333 1,481 1,403 1.519 1,512 Annual death

} rate........

14.05 12.53 12.48 11.59 13.13 12,26 13.65 12.62 14.32 13.44 14.93 14.15 14.75 14.68 Typhoid fever.. 15 18 14 14 5 14

5 6 7 Malarial Fevers.

2 Small-pox Measles

8 Scarlet Fever....

15 14 Whooping Cough

3 3
4

3 Diphtheria and Croup ..... 19 13 15 17

26
19 30 27

26

26 Influenza.

3
3 4 3

8
5 5

16 17
Cerebro-Spinal
Meningitis.) 3 1

9
1 1

3
Tuberculosis
Pulmonalis 165 143
122 123 135 140 163 152 166

175
147

176 158 Other Tuberculous...... 28 18 26 13 33 18

27
25 II

16
23

26 17 Acute Bronchitis

18

13

19 Pneumonia..... 64 89 83 89 77

98 127 135 150

141 191 1 jo monia......

54
72 73

79
IC9

104 80

37

73 Violent Deaths..

98 59 73 76 87 78

81.

77

12

22

22

2

2

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Inquest cases ....
194 162 183 184 205 179 228

170
215 231

180

244 192 Mean barometer. 29.94 30.03 29.85 29.86 29.97 29.87 29.91 29.93 30.02 29.96 29.81 29.93 29.69 30.16 Mean humidity.. 69 6 59. 74.9 62. 63.6 63.6 55.3 61.7 71.7 52.9 64.9 66.4 68.

74.6 Inches of rain or snow..... 0.3iin 3.79in .8oin 2.26in.28in, .99in .65 in

.72in 1335 in 2.33in.72in. Mean tempera

ture (Fahr- < 63.49 57.99 '56.4° 54.4° 151.69 51.70 48.39 40.1° 48.° 33.4° 41.1° 33.6 43.69 37.90

enheit)...... Maximum temperature 81.

72.o 67.0 72.o 66.• '55.0 64.° 146. 151.° 44.° 59.9 58. (Fahrenheit) Minimum tem perature 40.0 47.0 37.0 31.o

18.• (Fahrenheit)

30.o 18.

72.o 69.

34.°

49.

35.o

32.

28.0

32.

24.

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