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TYPHOID FEVER DURING THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF 1913.
During the first six months of 1913, the reports show that New York City was remarkably free from typhoid fever; more so, in fact, than during any previous semiannual period. This is shown in the following table:
The figures for 1913, as shown above, are not only relatively but absolutely less than those for any corresponding period since the incorporation of the Greater City, and, in view of the steadily increasing population, the relative comparisons become even more marked. Thus, in 1908, there were 18 cases per 100,000 of the population; in 1912, 17.6 cases, and in 1913 only 8.8 cases per 100,000. It is probable that a number of favorable influences have contributed to this notable decrease. In the first half of 1913 there were fewer out-of-town infections and fewer secondary infections from the cases occurring in the City. The latter circumstance is partially accounted for by the anti-typhoid immunizations which, since the beginning of the year, have been performed by the department upon persons exposed to the disease. The following ngures show the cases arising from infection out of town and those contracted from city cases during the first half of 1912 and of 1913.
It will thus be seen that the out-of-town cases decreased 60 per cent., and the secondary, or contact cases, 70 per cent. These figures are certainly striking. It can hardly be doubted that the improved quality of New York City's milk supply, due in great measure to the pasteurization enforced by the department's regulations, has been prominent among the local factors causing the favorable showing in the total decrease of cases. From the fact that the cases originating in the city were not localized at any time to a single district or districts, it would seem that few, if any, could be attributed to an infected water supply. The educational campaign so persistently pursued by the department for the past several years is undoubtedly producing results. The general public have a better understanding of the proper method of handling typhoid cases occurring in their homes, and some of the press comments on the work of the department have undoubtedly aided, by instructing people generally in regard to the prevention of infectious diseases. It must, of course, be admitted that the number of cases of typhoid fever may again increase in number, and we must never lose sight of the fact that it is not wise to draw too hastily deductions to our own advantage from seeming cause and effect, but the figures given above, even when all allowances are made for the influence of agencies unrecognized or for the present beyond our control, are certainly cause for congratulation so far as they go.
DISCONTINUANCE OF REMOVAL OF BEDDING USED BY CONSUMPTIVES.
Since July 23, 1913, the removal for steam sterilization of bedding used by consumptives, has been discontinued, with the following exceptions:
(1) In those exceptional instances where physicians or members of the family insist upon the goods being removed for sterilization.
(2) In special instances where by reason of the nature of the premises proper and efficient fumigation cannot be performed.
(3) When, on account of extreme illness and weakness caused by the disease, patients in the advanced stages, with sputum showing tubercle bacilli, have been unable to care for it properly, and have for this reason thoroughly infected their bedding.
When bedding is to be removed, the procedure as formerly adopted will be followed.
Inspectors and nurses will explain to the family the effectiveness of fumigation, fresh air and sunlight in removing all danger of infection.
NEW REGULATIONS IN REGARD TO THE SHIPMENT OF BODIES DEAD FROM INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
At a meeting of the Board of Health of the Department of Health, held July 30, 1913, among certain resolutions relating to the duties of undertakers in cases in which death is the result of infectious diseases, occurred the following rules relating to the shipment by rail or boat of bodies thus infected. It is desired again to call attention to these rules which differ to some extent from those which have previously been operative. They are as follows:
In deaths from infectious diseases where the remains are to be shipped by rail or boat:
(a) The Inspector of Division of Infectious Diseases shall determine who may accompany the remains to the place of interment or cremation.
(b) The undertaker, in addition to complying with rules heretofore specified, shall file with this department a certificate of death and an affidavit to the effect that the rules of the State Department of Health have been complied with as to the preparation, disinfection, embalming and enclosure of the remains, specifying in such affidavit the rule or rules under which the body is being shipped or transported, and he shall notify in the name of the Department of Health of this City, by telegraph and before shipment of the remains, the Health Officer at point of destination, advising the date and train upon which the remains may be expected.
DEATH RATE FOR THE WEEK,
During the week ending August 23 there were 1,324 deaths reported, with a rate of 12.86, as against 1,310 deaths and a rate of 13.24 for the corresponding week of last year. While there were actually 14 more deaths than last year, there was nevertheless a saving of 39 lives when the increase in population is accounted for, and this despite the fact that the mean temperature for the past week was 11⁄2 deg. higher than during the corresponding week of last year.
There was an actual decrease in the number of deaths from diarrhoeal diseases, and also of deaths under one year; diphtheria and whooping cough showed an increase over the deaths reported from these diseases during the corresponding week of last year; measles, scarlet fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis, typhoid fever and pulmonary tuberculosis show a decrease; heart diseases and Bright's disease and nephritis show a rather large increase.
The death rate for the first thirty-four weeks of 1913 is 20 lower than that for the corresponding period of last year, the rates being 14.46 and 14.66, respectively.
Summary for Week Ending Saturday, 12 M., August 23, 1913.
Corrected according to borough of residence.
19.14 16.33 14-15
1,310,324 1,324 2,489 351 110 13.24 12.86
†The presence of several large institutions, the great majority of whose inmates are non-residents of the city, increases considerably the death-rate of this Borough. Deaths by Principal Causes, According to Locality and Age.
June June June June July July July July Aug. Aug. Aug. Aug.
3,408 3,063 2,989 2,329 1,467 1,639 1,624 1,366 1,266 1,128 1,109 I,III
Infectious and Contagious Diseases in Hospital.
Kingston Ave. Hospital.
*If the deaths under one month, numbering 100, from all causes, be deducted from the total deaths under one year, the resultant rate will be 96 deaths of infants per 1,000 births (weekly average July 1, 1912 .0 July 1, 1913).
Corrected Mortality Among Children, Week Ending August 23, 1913.
Includes Small Pox, Measles, Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria and Whooping Cough. Deaths According to Cause, Annual Rate per 1,000 and Age, with Meteorology and Number of Deaths in Public Institutions for 14 Weeks. May May June June June June July July July July Aug 24. 31. 7. 14. 21. 28. 5. 12. 19. 26.
Aug. 16. 23.
Total deaths.... 1,572 1,323 1,447 1,303 1,370 1,182 1,291 1,270 1,250 1,249 1,310 1,390 1,250 1,324
15.27 12.85 14.05 12.65 13.30 11.48 12.54 12.30 12.14 12.13 12.72 13.50 12.14 12.86
Under one year
£ ~ ** ** || 122 3 ||3 |
Mean barometer. 29.87 29.77 29.88 30.00 29.89 29.89 29.89 29.76 29.80 29.88 29.93 29.91 29.99 29.99 Mean humidity.. 70.9 69.4 57.9 63.4 73.9 65.4 60. 59. 61. 71. 68 0065.4 62. 1.34in .08in .67in .63in .45 in. 1.17 in 3 64in 1.08 n o. 13in .49in
60 7° 61.3° 69.1° 65.72.9 73.4° 79.° 73.6 75.9 75.° 77-3 74.9° 72.9° 75.1°
57. 49. 59. 62.