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Includes Small Pox, Measles, Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria and Whooping Cough. Deaths According to Cause, Annual Rate per 1,000 and Age, with Meteorology and

Number of Deaths in Public Institutions for 14 Weeks.

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Total deaths... 1,149 1,302 1,216 1,354 1,251 1,420 1,333 1,481 1,403 1,519 1,512 : 1,:46 1,461 1,440 Annual deathrate.....

11.55 13.13 12.26 13.65 12.62 14.32 13.44 14.93 14.15 14.75 14.68 15.01 14.19 13.98 Typhoid fever.. 14 14 5 14 9

12
5 6 7 3

3
Malarial Fevers.
Small-pox
Measles

8 7

10 Scarlet Fever ... 9

14

12 Whooping Cough 3 3 4

3
Diphtheria and
Croup...
15

26
19
27 26

26

25 25 33 Influenza .....: 4 3 4

8
5 5

6
16 17 14

13 15 Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis.)

9

1
I
3 4 6

7 4 Tuberculosis Pulmonalis 123 135 140 163 152 166

153 175

147
176

171 180 174 Other Tuberculous.. 13 33 18 27 22 25 II 16

23
26 17

28

24 29 Acute Bronchitis

18

20
13

19
18

15 Pneumonia... 83 89 77 115 98 127 135

141
191
130
162
126

130 Broncho Pneumonia...... 69 79 102 80 109

110 104 123

106 Violent Deaths. 98 59 73 76 87

81

77 74 60 63

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Mean barometer. 29.86 29.97 29.87 29.91 29.93 30.02 29.96 29.81 29.93 29.69 30.16 30.19 30.04 29.84 Mean humidity.. 62. 63.6 63.6 55.3 61. Ï 71.7 52.9 64.9 16.4 68.

74.6 21.9 66 7 631 Inches of rain or snow....

.8oin 2.26in .28in. .99in .65in .72in 1335 in 2.33in .72in. -78in .81in .62in Mean tempera

ture (Fahr- 54.40 51.6° 51.70 18.30 40.1° 48.o 33.40 41.1° 33.6° 43.6° 39.90 11.9" 141.o 39.4°

enheit).. Maximum tem

perature 72. 67.0 72.o 66.0 55.0 64.0 46.° 151. '44.° 59.9 58.° 63.0 60.0 61.

{Fahrenheit) Minimum temperature 37. 31.° 35. 32.° 28.° 34.0 18.0 32.o

30.o 18. 18.

23 (Fahrenheit))

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DIRECTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

OFFICES
Headquarters: S. W. Corner Centre and Walker Streets, Borough of Manhattan

Telephone, 6280 Franklin
Borough of The Bronx, 3731 Third Avenue.

Telephone, 1975 Tremont Borough of Brooklyn, Flatbush Avenue and Willoughby Street,

Telephone, 4720 Main Borough of Queens, 372-374 Fulton Street, Jamaica, L. I....

Telephone, 1200 Jamaica Borough of Richmond, 514-516 Bay Street, Stapleton, S. I..

Telephone, 44 Tompkinsville Office Hours-9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 12 m.

HOSPITALS FOR CONTAGIOUS DISEASES
Manhattan-Willard Parker Hospital, foot of East 16th Street. Telephone, 1600 Stuyvesant.
The Bronx-Riverside Hospital, North Brother Island. Telephone, 4000 Melrose.
Brooklyn-Kingston Avenue Hospital, Kingston Avenue and Fenimore Street. Telephone, 4400 Flatbush.

LABORATORIES
Diagnosis Laboratory, Centre and Walker Streets. Telephone, 6280 Franklin.
Research Laboratory. Chemical Laboratory. Vaccine Laboratory. Drug Laboratory.

Foot of East Sixteenth Street. Telephone, 1600 Stuyvesant.

INFANTS' MILK STATIONS

Manhattan 1. 172 East 3d St.

8. Vanderbilt Clinic 15. 1391 Avenue A 22. 73 Cannon St. 2. 522 East 11th St.

9. 326 East 11th St. 16. 200 East 97th St. 23. 110 Suffolk St. 3. 281 Avenue A

10. 114 Thompson St. 17. 209 Stanton St. 24. 96 Monroe St. 4. 240 East 28th St.

11. 315 East 112th St. 18. 2287 First Ave. 25. 251 Monroe St. 5. 225 East 107th St. 12. 244 Mulberry St. 19. 108 Cherry St. 26. 413 West 40th St. 6. 241 East 40th St.

13. 438 West 48th St. 20. 122 Mulberry St. 27. 74 Allen St. 7. 174 Eldridge St.

14. 78 Ninth Ave. 21. 207 Division St.

Brooklyn 1. 268 South 2d St.

7. 359 Manhattan Ave. 13. 651 Manhattan Ave. 19. 698 Henry St. 2. 660 Fourth Ave.

8. 104 President St. 14. 185 Bedford Ave. 20. 303 Williams Ave. 3. 208 Hoyt St.

9. 698 Leonard St. 15. 296 Bushwick Ave. 21. 167 Hopkins St. 4. 325 Hudson Ave. 10. 233 Suydam St. 16. 994 Flushing Ave.

604 Park Ave. 5. 724 Glenmore Ave. 11. 329 Osborne St.

17.

176 Nassau St. 23. 239 Graham Ave. 6. 184 Fourth Ave. 12. 126 Dupont St. 18. 129 Osborn St. 24. 1597 Pitkin Ave. The Bronx-1. 511 East 149th Street. 2. 1354 Webster Avenue.

22.

Queens-1. 114 Fulton Avenue, Astoria, L. I. Richmond--1. 689 Bay Street, Stapleton, S. I.

CLINICS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN Manhattan-Gouverneur Slip. Telephone, 2916 Orchard.

Pleasant Avenue and 118th Street. Telephone, 972 Harlem. Brooklyn—330 Throop Avenue. Telephone, 5319 Williamsburg.

124 Lawrence Street. Telephone, 5623 Main.

1249 Herkimer Street. Telephone, 2684 East New York. The Bronx-580 East 169th Street. Telephone, 2558 Tremont.

TUBERCULOSIS CLINICS
Manhattan--West Side Clinic, 307 West 33d Street. Telephone, 3471 Murray Hill.

East Side Clinic, 81 Second Street. Telephone, 5586 Orchard.
Harlem Italian Clinic, 420 East 116th Street. Telephone, 5584 Harlem.
Southern Italian Clinic, 22 Van Dam Street. Telephone, 412 Spring.

Day Camp, Ferryboat “Middletown," foot of East 91st Street. Telephone, 2957 Lenox,
The Bronx, Northern Clinic, St. Pauls Place and Third Avenue. Telephone, 1975 Tremont.

Southern Clinic, 493 East 139th Street. Telephone, 5702 Melrose.
Brooklyn-Main Clinic, Fleet and Willoughby Streets. Telephone, 4720 Main.

Germantown Clinic, 55 Sumner Avenue. Telephone, 3228 Williamsburg.
Brownsville Clinic, 302 Bradford Street. Telephone, 2732 East New York.
Eastern District Clinic, 306 South 5th Street, Williamsburg: , Telephone, 1293 Williamsburg.

Da Camp, Ferryboat "Rutherford," foot of Fulton St. Tel., 1530 Main.
Queens-Jamaica Clinic, 10 Union Avenue, Jamaica. Telephone, 1386 Jamaica.
Richmond-Richmond Clinic, Bay and Elizabeth Streets, Stapleton. Telephone, 440 Tompkins.

SANATORIUM FOR TUBERCULOSIS
Otisville, Orange County, N. Y. (via Erie Railroad from Jersey City), Telephone, 13 Otisville.

TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL ADMISSION BUREAU Maintained by the Department of Health, the Department of Public Charities, and Bellevue and Allied

Hospitals, 426 First Avenue. Telephone, 8667 Madison Square. Hours 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.

M. S. BROWN PRINTING & DINDING CO.

49 TO 57 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK

522-B-18 (B) 2000

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DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

Report for Week Ending February 8, 1913

DEFECTIVE VISION IN PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREX. From 1909 to 1912, inclusive, 1,015,219 physical examinations of school children have been made by Medical Inspectors of the Division of Child Hygiene of the Department of Health. In 105,797 instances defective vision was found to exist in some degree.

The regular procedure of the Department has been to call the attention of the parents of these affected children to the existence of the physical defect and to urge the parents to take the child to the family physician for treatment. If no response to this request is received within a few days, a nurse of the Department of Health visits the parents to explain and urge the necessity of treatment, and thereafter repeats her call as many times as may be necessary to see that treatment is obtained or until the parents definitely refuse to provide any medical care for the child. Cases of extreme neglect to provide glasses where they are absolutely needed are referred to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Absolute refusal on account of indifference or neglect is rarely encountered; more often refusal is based upon financial reasons. In such cases the various relief and social agencies of the City provide the needed glasses for the child, if, upon investigation, it is ícund that the family cannot afford to pay for them. By means of these efforts 65,940, or 62.3 per cent., of these children have obtained the treatment necessary.

Recently an investigation of the defective vision of school children has been made by a physician of this City. This physician examined forty children who were considered mentally defective or rated as delinquent or backward in their studies. Twenty-nine of the cases were followed up, and, after the fitting of glasses to these children, they were found by him to be improved mentally. The control covered a period of six months. From these results he has drawn the conclusion that the children of the public schools are not under competent medical supervision. It may be incidentally remarked that these children were taken to the physician's office to have their vision tested and that the eyeglasses furnished these children were also obtained from him.

The Department of Health considers it an unwarranted interference with the rights of the medical profession and of parents to refer children with physical defects to any special physician or dealer in medical or surgical supplies for the purpose of physical examination, treatment or the obtaining of such appliances as may be necessary to correct their defects. It believes that the parents have an absolute right to take their children to their own physicians or to dispensaries selected by themselves.

The improvement in scholastic progress of backward children in whom defective vision has been corrected is obvious. Studies and investigations made by the Department do not warrant the conclusion that the provision of eyeglasses causes any definite improvement in the mentality of children who are actually mentally defective. In the public schools these mentally defective children are wholly under the control of the Department of Education. They are examined by a special physician of that Department before they are assigned to the special ungraded classes. It is a debatable question whether or not such children should be in the public schools or be committed to special institutions for the mentally defective, but, in either event, alienists have not corroborated the claim that the correction of defects of vision occurring in these unfortunate children acts as a panacea.

It is of interest to note here that in 1909 Dr. Leonard P. Ayres, Assistant Director of the Division of Child Hygiene of the Russell Sage Foundation, conducted a careful study of 7,608 children in the public schools to determine the degree of retardation caused by the various physical defects. He found as a result of his investigation that physical defects as a whole caused a retardation that was equal to an additional year in the complete eight-year course. The only defect he found that did not affect retardation in any way was that of vision. The children with this defect finished their course in eight years, with no loss of progress.

There is a middle point of view between the extremes of these two investigations. The Department of Health for many years has had supervision of the medical inspection and examination of the children in New York City's public schools. Its system of school inspection is broader in its scope, and equally, if not more, efficient in its results, than that maintained by any other large city in the country. That the correction of physical defects in school children helps them to progress in their studies has been amply demonstrated. From time to time specialists in some one branch of medicine make investigations to determine the effect on school progress of the correction of the specified defect. There is decided danger that overconcentration in any specialized line may give rise to the assumption that the deiect in question is the only one of supreme importance.

From its extended experience with the subject, the Department of Health is convinced, not only that the correction of defects of vision is a necessity, but that the reduction and correction of the other physical defects in children are of equal importance.

It is a hasty and ill-balanced conclusion to infer that anything less than proper attention to all of the physical defects and deficiencies of the children, with the needed adjustment of home and school conditions, as well as proper medical attention, will give that mental and physical health which is essential to well-rounded child life. The necessity of care and adjustment of the many features which may have an effect upon the health of the child during the nineteen hours of the day when it is not in school are fundamentally of just as great, and, in many instances, of far greater, importance than those conditions which affect it during the five hours it is in school.

The ealth of the 700,000 children in New York City's public schools should not be judged by the results of any special group of twenty-nine children. Racial, social and economic conditions all must be studied and adjusted as they pertain to the life of the child, both in the school and at home. Proper medical treatment must be provided for the correction of physical defects, and the individual idiosyncrasies of the child studied, in order that individual treatment and care may be assured in each case.

These facts are the fundamental ones upon which the present system of medical examination of school children in New York City is founded. Its greatest efficacy in assuring to the child that normal health to which it is clearly entitled will come when school officials, the medical profession and the laity bring forth their fullest measure of co-operation with the efforts which the Department of Health is making in this line.

METHYL, OR WOOD ALCOHOL. It has been abundantly proven that methyl alcohol is intensely poisonous to human beings, either when swallowed or when its vapor is inhaled. Whether toxic symptoms can also be produced by its external application is somewhat doubtful, íor the reports of such cases do not conclusively eliminate inhalation. The properties of crude methyl alcohol are sufficiently well known to most people. Its odor is well marked and intensely disagreeable and its legitimate use in the trades is practically restricted to the solution of certain gums and resins. In the household it is sometimes employed in lamps in its crude form as a substitute for the more expensive ethyl or grain alcohol. Crude methyl alcohol contains many substances other than the hydroxide of methyl, most important among which, in so far as toxicity is concerned, are acetone and cyanides. It is possible by rectification, long continued. complicated and expensive, to extract these associated products completely, and the fluid which is then left is colorless and has an odor which cannot be distinguished from that of ethyl alcohol. While the literature is slightly conflicting, it seems pretty well established that chemically pure methyl alcohol exerts no more toxic influence upon the animal economy than does ethyl alcohol. The trouble is that, as sold under various trade names, methyl alcohol is only partially rectified. and, while its taste and smell under these circumstances are practically identical with those of ethyl alcohol, the poisonous cyanides and acetone remain in sufficient quantities to cause serious symptoms, and even death, when taken internally. A great many cases of poisoning have thus resulted in this city during the past several years. Most frequently the methyl alcohol has been drunk in the form of an adulterant of cheap spirits. The symptoms in these cases are acute. The person becomes unconscious, with widely dilated pupils, and death frequently results without return to consciousness. The poison seems to exert a specific influence upon the optic nerves or more especially, as has been shown, upon the ganglionic nerve cells of the retina, rapidly causing their death, which is followed by an ascending atrophy of the nerve, sometimes preceded by a slight neuritis. The atrophy, in severe cases, involves the entire nerve, and, as a result, complete and incurable

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