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June 1846.



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1 617265 N.E.S. E. Cloudy Fair 163717370 2 60 69 640.03 S. E.S.

Rain. 163 70 69 68 362 80 71 N.WW. Fair. Fair 6579 8077 4 6381720.14 S.WS. Do. Do. 165 81 85 77 5.68 8473 0.38 S. WW. Do. Do. 171 82 84 81 6617569 W. N.W Cloudy Cloudy 65 74 78 76 7 587364 N.WN.W Fair. Fair

164 727774 8,58 75 65 S. W S. Cloudy Do. 164747472 9 6071 66 N.E.S. E. Do. Cloudy 66 76 77 72 10:59:7365 S. E.S. E. Do. Fair 166 80 7471 11 60 75 610.01 S. WIS W Do, Rain. 165 76 75 73 12 69 70 620.08 N.E.E.

Do. Cloudy 65 737472 13566862 E. S.E. Do.

Do. 16173,7370 14 58 75 66 N.E.S. W Do. Do. 6477 79 75 15 65 8270 S. WS. W Do. Fair 167 82 80 77 16 65 8168 N.E.S. E. Fair. Cloudy 7 1 82 84 75 17 5873 69 N.E.S. E. Do.


66797873 18 63 76 71 S.WS. Cloudy Fair

65 79.8076 19 68 82 75 0.03 S.WS. W Fair. Rain. 72 85 8874 20 67 80 690.07 S. WS. W Do.

Do. 17183 85 74 21 6270 660.01 N.W N.W Do. Cloudy 6474 7368 2.2 52 64 57 W. N.W Cloudy Fair 56 67 68 66 23 51 64 600.09 N. N.E. Do. Do. 57 68 68 68 24 53 70 520.01N.E.S. W Fair. Cloudy 60 70 7570 25 57 74 68 0.04 N.WS. E. Do. Do. 62.7775 73 26 57 80 70 0.05 N. S. E. Do. Rain. 63 81 8274 27 587266.... N.E.S. Cloudy Cloudy|65'72 7370 28 59 68 640.07 S.WS. E. Rain. Do. 66 70 74 70 29 62 73,67 0.06 N.E.S. E. Cloudy Do. 66 76 77 73 30 65,70,690.05 E. S. E. Do. Do. J69737372.

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Made at Saltville Washington County, Va., by Mr.
Of observations made by L. W. CONKEY, Esq., Syra-

W. King, Jr., for the month of June, 1846.

TABLE FOR JUNE, 1846. cuse, Onondago County, N. Y. for June, 1846. Remarks.

State of the weather. west wind, rain, thunder. and calm. west wind, clear. 1..64..79..86..73.., west wind, thunder. 2..69..79..86..65.. all day, S. W. wind. 3..55..69..80..65.. Lunar halo, 9f P. M. wind, clear. 4..61..76..86..70.. Showery 4 P. M. 6..63..64..58..54.. Showery 7) A. M., heavy rain, f day W. wind. 6..51..59..64..51..

[at 24 P. M., rain in morning N. E. Wind. 7..43..60..70..58.. 8..64..65..70..55.. clouds, east wind. 9..44..64..74..50.. in morning, 8. E. r. & t. 12. 10..51..70..78..65..clouds cirrus 3 & 9 P. M. E. wind, much rain & loud thun11..51..70..76..56..

14.70.-.-.69.. Do. from 2 to 4. [der from 12 to 4. 12..45..62..74..60.., thunder, east wind. 13..51..70..80..68.. light cirrus at sunrise. and calm. 14..58..68..81..68.. light showers 5 A. M. 9 P.M. fd., W. wind, showers and 15..78..74..78..67.. and calm. [thunder at eve. 16..56..71..75..63.. and calm in morn. rain and ld. 17..49.70..80..65.., w.w. thunder (thunder w. w. 18..55..76..80..68..showery 1 and 6 P. M. and calm. 19..65..77..71..70..strong wind 124 P. M. W. E. 20..61..71..66..54..showery at intervals. 21..49..52..52..46.. light showers at do. 22..43..50..56..47.. 23..41..61..68..56.. sprinkle of rain 6 P. M. 24..49..66..74..62.. 25..53..68..75..61.. 26..51..70..78..64.. 27..55..69..82..68.. wind, rain. 28.,62..70..80..68..

Salometer, June 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 26 and 29, 29..62..76..86..69.. 30..63..80..90..72..sprinkle of rain.

96o. Temperature of brine on the same days 620. RAIN GAUGE.-On the 2d, 0,33-100; 3d. 0,5-100; 4th

W. K., Jr. 0,6-100; 5th, 0,75-100; 14th, 0,6-100 18th, 0,10-100; 19th, 2,10-100; 21st, 0,35-100; 220, 0,20-100. Total

GREAT HEAT IN JULY. quantity of rain in June, 4.00 inches. BAROMETER.—The Mercury in the Barometer did

The heat on Friday the 10th, Saturday the 11th, not sink below 29,18, nor rise above 29,90, during the

and Sunday the 12th of July, was of the same degree whole month.

of intensity, but not of the same duration. On FriWind.—The wind blew from the east, all day on day the temperature was 94° from 20 minutes past 1, the 12th and 27th. From the south east, on the 25th

to 40 minutes past 3 P. M. On Saturday 940 from and 30th. From the south, on the 18th and 29th. 30 minutes past 2 P. M., to 50 m. past 2, and at 30 From the west, on the 10th. From the north west on m. past 3. On Sunday 94 from 30 m. past 2, to 40 m. the 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 16th, 17th, 21st, 220 and 23d. past 2. At the latter period heavy thunder was heard at

At sunrise east, 13th, 24th, 26th, 28th. South east a distance, and at 55 minutespast 2, a wind squall came 1st, 14th. South 4th. South west, 2d, 8th, 191h. up, and at 3 a heavy rain fell, and the temperature West 3d, 15th, 20th. North West 11th.

down to 87. At 4 o'clock it fell to 80°. On SaturAt 9 A. M., east 13th, 24th. South east, 1st, 14th. day morning the 18th of July, the temperature was South, 4th, and 28th. South west, 2d, 8th, 19th. West

580 from 4 to 6 o'clock, being a difference of 36° 3d, 15th, 20th. North west, 11th, 26th.

from half past 3 P. M. of the 12th. The lowest temAt 3 P. M. south east 13th. South 1st, 4th, 13th, perature on Friday night the 10th July, was 78o. On 14th, 28th. South west 3d. West 2d, 11th, 19th,

Saturday night 80. Sunday night 73. North west, 8th, 15th, 20th, 26th. North 24th.

At 9 P. M. south east 13th. South 1st, 14th, 28th, South west 3d, 4th, 19th. West, 2d. North west 11th

EQUILIBRIUM. 15th, 20th, 26th. North, 24th. CLEAR WEATHER 9th, 12th and 17th. Clear at

On Thursday night 16th, and Friday Sunrise 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30. morning the 17th, there was an equilib

9. A.M.3, 7, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25. 3 P.M. 9, 12, 17, 26.

rium temperature of 11 hours, from 9 9 P.M. 3, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 22, 25, 26, 30.

P. M. of the 16th, to 8 A. M. of the 17th, Entire cloudiness all day, 5, 20. 21. Cloudy at sun- preceded by a sudden depression of temrise on 7 days exclusive of the foregoing-at 9 A.M. four days, at 3 P. M. 3 days, and 9 P. M. 4 days.

perature of 3 degrees. A storm followNo thunder and lightning during the month. Dew ed. Such a state of the atmosphere in point June 2, 3 p. m., 73. On the 7th at sunrise 34,

the year 1846 has frequently occurred, and the same on the 23d. On the 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 28, 29, and 30th, 50, and above

and has in every instance been preceded with the exception of the morning of the 6th and 17th, by an Earthquake; it is therefore reasonwhen it was 46. On the 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 below 50.

able to presume that an earthquake pre

ceded the equilibrium of the 16th and State of THERMOMETER at the different Telegraph 17th, produced the equilibrium. stations, July 11, morning and afternoon. At Baltimore, 8 o'clock, A. M., 9010; 9,92 1-3; 10, 93 1-2 ; TEQUILIBRIUM.--Monday, July 20, 8 o'clock 11, 94 1-12; 12 M. 94 1-2; 1 P. M. 95 1-2 ; 2 1-2, P. M., temperature 68° ; 9, 68; 10, 68; 12, 68.96 1-2. Washington, 15 minutes 10 3, 94. At Phil- Tuesday July 21, 1 o'clock A. M. 68; 2, 68 ; 3, 68 ; adelphia, 10 A. M. 98 1-2°; 11, 99 1-2; 12, 101 ; 4,68 ; 5, 68; 6, 68; 7,68 ; 8,70; 9, 70, and a rain 12 1-2 P. M., 101 1-2; and at 2 1-2, 103 1-2. At Wil. and great humidity of atmosphere. The state of the mington, Del., 2 1-2 P. M. 89 1-2. New-York, at 2 atmosphere for 11 hours was that of great quietude. 1-2 P. M. 99 1-2.

A rain storm followed.

1.12 Barometer, at Flatbush June 7.-30,05—30,1030,05—8th, 30,10–30,20-9th, 30,25–30,25; 10th, 30,10–30,00--29,95 ; 12th, 29,95---30,10---30,20; 13th, 30,20-30,15: 14th, 30,05—30,00—29,95 ; 24th, 30,00 all day. June 20th, 29,65—29,60—29,65. The residue of the month from 29,65 to 29,95.

* TEMPERATURE.-Friday, July 10th, 4 o'clock, A.M. 74; 5,73; 6,74; 7, 77 ; 8, 82; 9, 87 ; 10, 87 1-2; 11, 87 1.2 ; 12, 91; 12 20, 92; 1,93; 1, 20, 94; 2, 94; 3, 94; 3 40,94; 4,93 ; 5, 91 1-2; 6,90; 7, 88.); 8,88; 9,86 1-2 ; 10, 84. Lightning cloud in the west 7 P. M.

Saturday 11th, 4 A. M. 78; 5, 78; 6, 79; 7, 82; 8, 86; 9, 91; 10, 90; 11, 91 1-2; 11, 30, 90 ; 12, 91 1-2; 1, 91 1-2 ; 2, 92; 2, 30, 94; 2, 50, 94; 3,93; 3, 15, 93; 3, 30,94; 4, 93 3-4 ; 5,91; 5, 30, 89 1-2; 6, 88 1-2: 7, 87 ; 8, 87; 9, 86. Lightning storm of great intensity, bordering the entire northern horizon until midnight. Mr. Underhill's house, in East Brooklyn, struck by a terrific thunderbolt at 11 P. M.

Sunday July 12, 4 A.M. 80; 5,78 1-2 ; 6, 80 ; 8, 87 ; 9, 89 1-2; 10, 30; 11, 90; 12, 91; 1, 91 1-2 ; 2, 98 1-2; 2, 30, 94 ; 2, 40, 92; 2,55,90; 3,87 ; 3, 5, 85 ; 3, 15, 84 ; 3, 30, 82; 3, 45, 81; 4,80 ; 4, 20, 82 ; 6, 82 ; 7, 82 ; 8, 81; 9, 80 1-2 ; 10, 10,79.

THUNDER STORMS. Saturday June 19, a thunder storm at Albany commenced at half past 2 P. M. and lasted an hour, during which rain fell in great abundance, and the streets were flooded.

Friday, June 18, at 3 P; M- a violent thunder storm was experienced at Troy. The lightning was very vivid, and the thunder heavy, rain abundant. The lightning struck in the river a few feet astern of the little steamer Maria, and made the water boil like a boiling cauldron.

At Buffalo, a thunder storm commenced on Monday morning before 1 o'clock, and lasted for an hour with great violence. The lightning was intensely vivid the whole time. A stab in Gay Street was struck by lightning and a horse killed. "The steeple of St. Mary's Catholic Church, and several other buildings were struck and injured.

LIFE INSURANCE. The New-York Life and Trust Company with a permanent capital of One Million of Dollars, safely invested, make Life Insurance both on the mutual and on the old plan.

DAVID THOMPSON, Esq., formerly cashier of the Bank of America, son of JONATHAN THOMPSON, formerly collector of the Port of New-York, has been elected President of the New-York Life and Trust Company, and has entered upon the duties of the office. WM. BARD, Esq., a gentleman of high standing in our community, is the actuary of the Company. With such officers the company will command an extensive business. The Board of Directors of the Company are worthy, good men, ofhigh standing in this community. Many of our numerous readers in the 59 different counties of this state to whom this paper is forwarded will feel a satisfaction in knowing that our City possesses a Company with such ample capital, and that it is under the direction of such worthy and good mer. This Company in the event of a loss may be relied upon for a prompt and equitable adjustment. In a future number we will endeavor to say something more full in regard to Life Insurance.

The New-York Life Insurance and Trust Company have issued a prospectus setting forth the plan on which they propose in future to insure lives. They propose to insure on their old system at reduced rates, This is proprietary, and allows to the insured no participation in profits, but gives to them the security of the Company's capital that their policies will be promptly paid when due. Thus affording security against loss beyond what the tables allow, from climate or the prevalence of cholera, and other epidemics and infectious diseases.

The Company propose also to insure at their present rates on the Mutual plan, in which the profits will be divided among the insured. They offer for a fixed period the guarantee of Fifty Thousand Dollars for the fulfillment of all contracts of Mutual Insurance, and the guarantee of their whole capital without limit of time, that the premiums paid by the insured shall be kept safely and without loss, and faithfully and punctually accumulated at the average rate of interest charged

Gazette, which I have partially perused with great interest, as there are many principles there reviewed with which I was formerly familiar, being the antipodes of our notions here of Municipal Government. The great length of time that has elapsed since your letter came to hand, makes it my duty to apologize. I had laid it by, and have a number of specimens of the kind you request, ready for transmission to you, and I had overlooked or forgotten your request to drop you a line, and I have been most of the time since last fall from home, and when home my health bas been such as to unfit me for promptness; but I should long since have forwarded the specimens to you had I been able to get a conveyance. We are 36 miles from the railroad to Augusta, and thence to Charleston, and the road to Macon is torn up, and repairing, and I could not send them withoutincurring an expense altogether too great for the value. I will endeavor to convey them to Macon and thence to Savannah, by the latter part of this month. In regard to examinations for gold, I will mention that it does not appear to be confined to any particular rock or strata. We find gold veins running paralell with and crossing mica slate (or inferior grauite), iron, sand stone (black and grey), and sometimes with veins of iron ore and lead glance. We test by washing the surface in a gadau pan shaking it and pouring off the sand until nothing but the gold remains; or by digging down in the branches until we come to a compact gravel, then cut through this and get some gravel off the slate, as we call it, (which is generally little else than decomposed granite or mica and fieldspar, and is of all colours, sometimes a fine blue green, tinged with purple yellow or white, feels greasy to the fingers, and dissolves instantly in water). Thirty or forty particles of goldd to as large as the head of a common pin, if found in a gadau of earth will pay $1 per day to the hand. The gold is always found in a flint or quartz gravel, and and our veins are compact fractured flint or quartz. The quartz are milky, yellow, white, greasy, brown, cellular, with oxide of iron in the cells, semi-transparent, and some pure crystal, but we do look for gold in the pure crystal"; it attends the veins in small blocks, or in regularly formed crystals, bnt in small quantities. We always find common quartz with the gold, but do not always find the gold in or with the quartz. If you can find any person who can learn you how to pan with a common gadau tin pan, you will have the knowledge of the miner who makes his first test, then if you find gold with your pan try your rockee (the machines we wash in) is a hollow trough 8 ft. long, 1 bar 1 in. high, within 34 feet of the head or end that is planked over, with the plank nailed down, 1 bar of the same height within 8 or 10 inches of the mouth, a riddle of punched sheet iron, 4 feet long, 2 feet wide } to of an inch thick, holes within 24 in length, laid on the top and side and head boards, 8 in. high, rocked so as to move the gravel and sand gently from side to side, a stream of water, 1 inch by 3, running on, a fin. augur hole 1 ln. above each bar in the centre of the bottom of the bottom of the rockee to take the gold out of, when done work rock a few minutes to lessen the quantity of sand stirring with the hand, or a stick take off 1 of the water, then raise the top end of it. 2 or 3 inches and stirand rock until the sand is reduced from 2 quarts to 3 pints take out in a gadau pan after all the water is held off, the bottom of the rockee is made a compressed circle about one inch less than a circle, sides 2 in. thick, at the top and 2 ft. from the outside 10 outside, 3 to 4 thick, through the bottom, a piece across the top of the mouth below the lower bar 4 in. wide, let on with a dovetail and nailed, a mortice through the cross piece, and a hole in the bottom of the rockee below the box to rock by, set at such an angle that the boy can take hold to rock with ease. If you think of going to make tests soon, I will with pleasure give you more particular directions. Our rockees are dug out of solid poplar, as called in NewYork, whitewood, the inside must be smooth.

“I am, Sir,
" Your ob't. servant,

“JOHN B. WICK. “To E. Meriam Esq., New-York.

No. 1. Residuent sand, from the washing for gold from the granite formation from surface washings, taking all the surface from 12 to 24 inches deep; the residuent sands from the branch washing are precisely the same, except when we approach near the range

of iron sand stone, when it contains more black iron sand.

No. 2. Mica slate, or granite. The gold veins run in this rock mostly, and it composes the back bone of our country. We find some gold in the iron sand stone, but the veins in it are small and poor. No. 3. Two pieces of iron sand stone.

It runs parallel to the gold or granite range, both sides of it, and appears to be a primitive formation.

No. 4. Crystalized quartz.

No. 5. Crystalized quartz, regular formation and fractured.

No. 6. A green micagrous rock accompanying the gold range between the granite and the sand stone formation, also runs in a range south of the sand stone, and is always in a narrow belt.

No. 7. Imperfect crystals.

No. 3. Veiu Rock blended with mica, a frequent ore of gold, but our veins that are the richest ore are generally compact quartz, with micagrous quartz adjoining the slate or bedding of the vein.

No. 9. Vein rock of the best appearance this kind is generally rich in gold.

No. 10. Vein rock with gold shining in it from South Carolina, but this is not regarded as better than those ores where it is fine.

No. 11. Pyretous iron ore, often contains gold.
No. 12. Vein rock, from a rich gold vein.

No. 13. Lead ore, which may contain silver ; has not been analyzed.

No. 14. Loose rock thrown into the box, being from the branch and surface washings on the granite formations.

No. 15. Carburet of iron, always found in the workings.

All the above specimens are from my workings except where they are otherwise designated. J. B. W.

Villa Rica, Georgia, is named after a town of the same name in Brazil, capitol of the province of Mina's Geraes, on the Ouro Preto, This town is situate on the declivity of a high mountain. It is the head quarters of the gold mining district in Brazil. There is a mint here. The gold found in the mountains on which the town is built is found in a matrix of slaty clay schist resting on a granite, gneiss, or sand stone.

In the table lands in Mexico, gold and silver is found embeded in Porphyry and Horublende. Quartz is absent. In the mines of Comanja silver is found in Syenite. in Guanaxuato, the richest mines in Mexico in clay slate and talc slate. Those of Real del Cardonal, Xacala and Somo del Toro, in a bed of transition lime stone. The precious metals are also found in the same districts with iron.

At Schemnitz, in Hungary, gold is found in a whitish compact limestone, alternating with syenite and porphyry. Ou the borders of Transylvania gold is found in sand like masses of decayed pumice stone.

by them on all their loans in the city and county of the

New-York. The Company further propose to receive from the insured, either on the Proprietary or Mutual system, thirty per cent. of all annual life premiums in their own notes, or to allow them to pay their premiums quarterly or semi-annually. The Company will insure single or joint lives, or the life of the longest liver. They will also grant and purchase annuities and make any other contingent contract involving the interest of money and the duration of life. The prospectus may be had on application at the office. Its examination is recommended to him who wishes to secure his wife, or child, or friend, or dependant, against the suffering his death would occasion either of them should he leave them unprovided for.

WINGED ANTS. Copy of a Letter from H. E. PIERREPONT, Esq., Brooklyn, New-York.

“Brooklyn, 13th July 1846. “ Dear Sir,

" I send you some insects which frequent Mr. Gouverneur Morris's house, and are supposed to have been brought by his father to this country in some French furniture. From their habits they are supposed to belong to the EPHEMERA, as their disappearance is as sudden as their visit-and like the ineects of that genus they come in great numbers, pouring out of cracks and holes and covering the doors of baseinent rooms. I have compared them with the description and engraving of the ephemera, but they do not resemble them so much as the very numerous family of ants. I am no entamologist and will not venture to class or name the insect—if you can do so, I shall be pleased to hear from you.

"With much regard,

"I am yours,

“ HENRY E. PIERREPONT. " E. Meriam, Esq."

These insects are the winged ant, described in this voulume, p. 331-they lake wing in summer.-Ed.

GOLD DIGGING, In the Cherokee Country. State of Georgia. There is a U. 8. Mint, for coining gold, in this neighborhood.

Copy of a letter addressed to the Editor from JOHN B. Wick, Esq., of Villa Rica, Georgia.

“Villa Rica, Carroll Co., Ga..

“May 12th, 1846. Dear Sir,--Mrs. Bryant handed me your favor of the 14th Oct., and also the Numbers of the Municipal

LIGHTNING.--Two persons, L. Connel, and Chancey Walker, the former a Seargent and the latter a Corporal, belonging to the two Reg. U. S. Infantry were killed by lightning during a thunder storm at Sault St. Maria, a few days since.

Capt. Freemont's visit to the top of the highest Moun-

tain in North America.
“During our mornings's ascent, we had met no
sign of animal life, except the small sparrow like
bird already mentioned. A stillness the most pro-
found, and a terrible solitude forced themselves cen.
stantly on the mind as the great features of the
place. Here, on the summit, where the stillness
was absolute, unbroken by any sound, and the so-
litude complote, we thought ourselves beyond the
region of animated life; but while we were sitting
on the rock, a solitary bee (bromus, the humble bee,)
came winging his flight from the eastern valley, and
lit on the knee of one of our men.

“ It was a strange place, the icy rock and the highest peak of the Rocky Mountains, for a lover of warm sunshine and flowers; and we pleased ourselves with the idea that he was the first of his species to cross the mountain barrier—a solitary pioneer to foretell the advance of civilization. I believe that a moment's thought would have made us let him continue his way unharmed ; but we carried out the law of this country, where all animated nature seems at war; and, seizing him immediately, put him in at least a fit place-in the leaves of a large book,

among the flowers we had collected on our way. The barometer stood at 18.293, the attached thermometer at 44o; giving for the elevation of this summit 13,570 feet above the Gulf of Mexico, which may be called the highest flight of the bee. It is certainly the highest known flight of that insect."Capt. Fremont's Tour, page 69. Published by order of the Congress of the United States.

This act, we have no doubt, Capt. Freemont will remember to the latest day of his life, and regret it as long as that memory lasls.

BIRDS. Thursday morning June 13th, my little daughter informed me there were several young birds flying about the street, and that the boys were endeavoring to catch them. I immediately set out in pursuit and soon found the little creatures the boys had caught; two of them, and the parents were flying about in great distress.

The boys willingly gave the young birds up to me, and I laboured nearly an hour to induce the parent birds to follow their young to the trees near my dwelling, and at last succeeded; frequently the mother would fly within a few feet of me, and I could see that her eyes were perfectly red, produced by the excited feelings. I procured a ladder and ascended a tree, and placed the young birds upon a limb, out of harm's way ; but one of them flew down upon the ground, I caught it and placed it in a cage and hung the cage on a limb that reached near a window of my house. The parent birds followed their little offspring and fed it through the wires of the cage. The following day a sudden gust came up and I removed the cage inside the house and near the window, leaving the window open, and the parents followed it and fed the young bird inside the house. The following day the young bird, by the aid of the mother got through the wire of the cage, and escaped -but a few minutes after I saw the bird fly down upon the pavement, while the mother flew after it to prevent it from encountering too great a risk. I caught the young bird and replaced it in the cage, and the mother immediately came and fed it, and seemed satisfied with the care I had taken of it. I then removed the cage to a small bed room, and placed it upon a chair near the window, fastened the door and left the window open for the mother to come in and feed her little one. She came frequently and fed it, and a little before sundown left it for the night. On Sabbath morning the parent bird came a little after 4 o'clock, and fed the young bird, and repeated the visits very frequently while I was in the room. At about ten o'clock she came near the window and seemed anxious to have the little bird set at liberty, and the little bird seemed impatient under restraint, and as it had acquired strength to fly I placed it on a long stick, reached out towards its mother, while she sat waiting on the limb of a tree, at a few feet distant. The little one flew upon the tree, and from tree to tree the parent following it, both apparently greatly rejoiced,-a feeling in which I largely participated. Some days after one of the parent birds

came upon a cherry tree on the opposite side of the present month, while sitting at the window of my house, which is within ten feet of the window beside study, in quiet contemplation that a splendidly beauwhich is my writing table, and commenced singing tiful Butterfly made its appearance near me.

With its sweet notes. Since then this bird las visited this fi a magnifying glass I examined this wonderful creature tree several times a day, and at each visit sings a -its wings were spangled with feathers ornamented pretty song. On the fourth of July this bird came with the brightest silver-it had a crest like the goldupon the tree quite often—the weather was rainy, and en pheasant, and its antenaes were of the richest purthe boys were firing crackers, and then it did not sing. ple fringed with golden yellow, and shaded by a lovely Last year I restored a young bird of the same species green-its body was covered with ash colored feathers to its parents, and it is possible these may be the of a silky lustre—its legs were of a rich pink, and same birds. These birds are sweet singers, and are furnished with a slight covering of ash colored feathers. often heard on the tops of the trees in Brooklyn, I placed the pretty creature on one of my fingers and singing at an early honr in the morning. Their notes removed it to a boquet of flowers—it seemed delighted are much like those of the canary. This biru is about with the change and flew from flower to flower with an the size of the canary, and of an olive green color on activity that seemed to evidence great satisfaction. its back, with a light colored breast, is of a slender Less than a month ago this beautiful Butterfly was an form and very bright eyes.

humble, hated worm. It has passed that change alloted
There is much real and abiding satisfaction in ren- to it by nature, and entered upon a new state of ex-
dering kindnesses to these little birds—they are sensi. istence, which although one of great apparent pleas-
ble of kindness and very grateful for favors—they ure, is at the longest of but a few day's duration.
bring a blessing with them when they come, and leave
one when they depart-their visits are therefore twice

It was the pretty Dove that was commissioned by

During a heavy wind in the month of May, wo the Great Patriarch of the Deluge to examine the

discovered one of these fall in the yard, and apstate of the earth, and of the waters, which returned

peared disabled; poor puss was close upon the fallen bearing an Olive branch in its month. The Raven

bee, but we were almost as quick upon puss, and was the favored messenger charged with an errand of

released the insect, placed it in comfortable quarmercy by Him who made the World, to one of his

ters, and endeavoured to feed it with some sugar; ancient Prophets.

but it refused the food, and for about twenty-four Birds possess intelligence-discover a retentive

hours seeined failing; but on being furnshed with memory and are grateful for kindnessess.

some fresh flowers, it revived, and in the course of Men can profit by the teachings of the most humble

a few hours regained its strength and its energy, of God's creatures.

raised itself by its wings, and flew away. I would not exchange the gratitude of this humble insect,

for all the bloody laurels ever gained upon the field MOUNT HECLA.

of battle in the slaughter of the human race. The Journal of Commerce of July 3, states that letters from Copenhagen of April 10. states that the eruptions of Hecla commenced on the 21 of Sept.

ADIRONDACK GEMS. 1845, and ceased about the 5th of April, 18-16, having Among the geological sgecimens we collected upon been in activity seven months. Mount Hecla is in the Adirondack Mountains, is a pretty gein of a latitude 63 20, and Copenhagen in latitude 55, 41. It bright green color, which on being placed in an atis probable therefore, that there is some error in dates. mosphere heated to the temperature of 212 of Fahren

heit, becomes luminous and exceedingly brilliant, and

in a few moments after acquiring this luminous state, THE PRODUCT OF LABOR.

explodes and lies into fragments. The fragments on The human race are not the only portion of anima- becoming cold resemble pieces of flint glass, being ted nature engaged in industry, in labor, in trial, for perfectly transparent and without color. The appearthe support of Lite. The Bee labors, and the product ance of this stone during its illuminated state is exof the industry of that insect in Honey and Wax, is ceedingly beautiful, the color that of heated iron immense, forining two items large in amount in the while enduring a white heat. list of articles of Commerce. The Silk Worm labors and the product of its industry is vastly great-all the silk made use of by the human race, is the product

BUTTERFLIES. of the Silk Worm. The Ant labors-the Beaver also

On the 24th of June, about the middle of the afterlabors, and we could go on with a long list, but what noon, I noticed about twenty large caterpillars directwe have stated is enough for our present purpose. ing their march over the side walk to the front area of Human labor wlien put iu requisition yield results my dwelling. I immediately provided myself with that are vast and almost beyond estimate. Individu- a little bush that they could lay hold of, and carefully ally and collectively, one or both, the results are equally removed all of them to my cabinet, and shut the door; importaut. If a Railroad is to be laid down, or a

next morning all of them had become attached to the Canal is to be excavated—the work is soon accom- underside of the shelves and hung pendant by a gluplished if human labor is brought ito requistion. tinous substance which exuded from the head of the Not slavish labor, but that aid which allows the labor- insect. er his proportionate share of the results and which This morning at 4 o'clock, I opened my cabinet to requires from him his proportionate share of the out

give it the refreshing morning air, and closed it again lay. Millions of our race suffer hunger and cold at 5 o'clock, but had occasion to open it several times because they are unconscious of the power that is in afterwards. At a little before 8 o'clock my little daughthem to support themselves by the labor of their own

ter espied a pretty butterfly that had just made its aphands. Public works constructed at the cost of the

pearance in the cabinet; on opening the door a fow public treasury, are by many considered unauthorised minutes afterwards, six others bore it company. by the great covenant of the people made by each with the others. If such a principle is not innorpora

Counting from the morning of June 25th, when ted in the paramount fundamental law-it should be,

they became attached, to the morning of July 9th, and it would be well to let it take the place of the cost

when they emerged from the chrysalis, there are 15 of gun-powder and fire-arms which are producing, so

days of 24 hours each. much mischief in the world and probably drawing

The humble and hated caterpillar crawling to its our nation toward the realms of perdition.

rest to await the change appointed to its race by nature in a little less than than 16 days becomes a beautiful

butterfly and soars aloft amid the morning sunbeams THE BUTTERFLY.

occasionally alighting upon flowers to taste their sweet, It is instructive to the human mind to watch the and at last after a few days of recreation and pleasure, changes which the humblest worm that crawls upon retires calmly to its place of rest and change, -how inthe earth, is heir to. Nature, in the bounteous pro- structive to man. Nature, and Nature's God as seen fusion of her gifts, has made provision for the humblest in the terrific earthquake-its calm, its storm, or in the worm, and endowed it with the needful faculties and labors of the worm crawling under foot to enter an nstructed it in whatever pertains to its weifure. Man humble gate to reach its change--all afford that evigrudges to the humblest worm its morsel of food dence which should produce profitable conviction in which nature has caused to grow for its use.

the human mind. It was in the stillness of a clouded morning of the July 9, 1846.


Earthquake of April 22d, 1846. Monday April 13th, 4 o'clock A, M, 38 ; 6,37 ; 7,

42; 9, 50 ; 12, 51 ; 1, 50 ; 4,41 ; 5, 39; 7, 39. The suggestion we made in the Muni

Tuesday 14th, 4 o'clock A. M. 31°; 6, 33 ; 8.41; cipal Gazette, No. 41, of June 1, 1846, 9, 46 ; 10, 45 ; 2, 3, 52; 4, 51 ; 6, 51 ; 7, 49.

Wednesday 15th 4 o'clock A. M. 43; 7, 46; 10, that an earthquake had taken place on

51 ; 11, 48; 12. 49; 1, 2, 3, 50; 4, 48; 5, 47 ; 8, 22d day of April has been verified. An 41. arrival from Sicily brings an acount that

Thursday 16th, 5 o'clock A. M. 32; 7, 36; 8, 43 ;

9, 46; 10, 48; 11, 12, 50; 1, 2, 3, 51; 4, 49; 5, a severe shock of an earthquake did take

48 ; 6, 46; 7, 42. place on that day at Catania, a city of Friday 17th, 5, 6, A. M. 40; 7, 8, 46; 10, 53 ; 11, about 70,000 inhabitants, near the foot

56; 12, 59; 1, 62; 2, 64; 3, 66 ; 4, 68; 5, 64; 6,

60; 7. 58; 8, 56. of Mount Ætna. Catania is more than

Saturday 18th, 5 o'clock A. M. 52 ; 7, 55; 8, 62; 89 degrees of longitude east of my place 9,66 ; 10,67; 11, 71 ; 12, 72; 1,

, ; 2, 3, 78; 3 1-2,

80; 4, 79; 5, 74; 6,70; 7, 67 ; 8, 66; 9, 63. of observation, or 4,400 miles.

Sunday 19th 5 o'clock 55 ; 6,57 ; 7,55 ; 8, 65 ; 9, From the Municipal Gazette No. 41, June 1, 1846. 67 ; 10, 66; 12, 70 ; 2, 68; 3,70; 4, 67 ; 5, 65 ; 6, We bave no account of earthquakes on the 22d of April but the

62 ; 7, 58; 8, 52; 9, 51; 10, 59; 12, 58. peculiar state of the lemperature gives abundant reason to suppose

Monday 20th, 4 o'clock 48 ; 7, 19 ; 9, 50; 10, 53 ; an earthquake took place on that day near the equator. It may be

11, 62; 12, 64; 1, 66 ; 2, 3, 67 ; 4, 63; 5, 60; 6, that we may never hear of it, fo: bad that at Memphis, or Mays

58 ; 8, 57.

Tuesday 21st 5 o'clock 49; 7, 53 ; 8, 62 ; 9, 67 ; ville, or Cincinnati, taken place in the wilderness, where no news

10, 70; 11, 72; 12, 78; 1,79 ; 2, 80; 3, &1; 3 1-2, papers were printed, we probably sbould never have heard of the

82 ; 4, 81.-April 21st. From the Journal of Commerce, Jnly 7, 1846.

On Tuesday afternoon, which is where my last

communication leaves off, at 5 o'clock 78; 7, 73.“ The news from Catania continues to be of the

During Tuesday night the temperature decreased 14,
most alarming character. The shocks of earthquake being at 59 at 4 o'clock Wednesday morning.
which on

Wednesday morning at 4 o'clock temperature 59;

6, 59; 7,59 ; 9,57 ; 11, 55 ; 12, 56 ; 1, 56 ; 2, 56 ; had been so strong and have left such visible marks

3, 55 ; 4, 54; 5, 54 ; 6, 53; 7, 49. of their action, continued night and day, though in a The temperature on Wednesday evening the 22d, less degree to the

was stationery 11 hours. At 7 o'clock thermometer 28th,

marked 49; it contiued at that during the night-was when they increased in violence and were repeated at the same at 4, 5, and 6 o'clock this morning, 23d; at intervals up to the hour when the last advices were at 7 it rose to 51. received.”

It will be seen by the files of the Star that the From the Journal of Commerce, May 16, 1846.

23d of December and 23d of March presented the

same phenomena as here noticed, on which occasion There was a slight shock of an earth

an earthquake took place at the South; the same on quake at Santa Cruz, (south side of the 30th January and 28th February, and on both of Cuba,) on the 28th of April.

these occasions earthquakes took place at the South.
April 23d.

E. M.
Shipwreck on the night of the 29th of April, 1846.

From the Brooklyn Slar, April 25. - The night of the day succeeding the earthquake at Catania, in Sicily, and succeeding the earthquake at

THE WEATHER. Santa Cruz, in Cuba, both of which took place on the My two memorandurns of the weather &c., pub28th of April, the Ship Gento, from Calcutta for Bos- lished in the Star of yesterday, under one head, exton, was shipwrecked at Strays Bay, Cape Anguelas, plains the reference at the close, in the words • where near the Cape of Good Hope, and a lady, two children my last communication left off-which was at 4 o'clk. and a servant, and three of the crew were drowned. on Tuesday in the first, of the two; the second, Wednesday April 29, at 4 A. M. 50 ; 5, 50; 6, 50;

closed at 7 o'clock Thursday morning. 7,50; 8,50; 9, 50 ; 9 1-2, 54; 10, 57 ; 1 1-2,57 ; 3,

Thursday 8 o'clock A. M. 54; 9, 55; 10, 58 ; 11, 55; 4,54 ; 5, 55 ; 6, 54; 7, 52. Very heavy rain at

63; 12, 66 ; 1, 67 ; 2, 69; 3, 68 ; 4, 64; 5, 61; 6, night and some thunder and lightning. A heavy hail

58:7, 55 ; 9,50: 11, 48. storm was experienced at Washington, Pa., and rain Friday 4 o'clock, A. M. 46 ; 7, 47 ; 8, 49; 9, at Boston.

54; 10, 57 ; 11, 63; 12, 68; 1, 72; 2, 3, 4, 5, 74; 6, Thursday, April 30, 4 A. M. 50; 5, 50; 7, 53 ; 8,

72; 7, 70; 10, 69. 58 ; 9,59; 9, 1-2, 61; 1 1-2 69 ; 2,71; 3, 72; 3, 69;

Saturday 4, 5, 6, 7 o'clock, A. M. 49; 8, 41. Yes5,64 ; 6, 60; 7,59 ; 8, 59 ; 9, 55 ; 10, 54.

terday morning the fog was so dense on the East River

that the shore bells were rung as a guide to the boats The following extracts illustrate the

--the same difficulty was experienced by the Ship accuracy of my observations.

Henry Clay-making the coast on the 24th of March

the day succeeding the earthquakes at Maysville and From the Brooklyn Star, April 24, 1846.

Cuba, of the 23d March. The 23d Dec. and 28th TEMPERATURE, &c. OF THE ATMOSPHERE. Feb. on each of which earthquakes occurred, and the Tuesday April 7th, at 5 o'clock A. M. 44°; 6, 43 ;

fog was made into snow. Last night we had black 8,53; 9, 58 ; 10, 60 ; 11, 61; 12, 60; 1, 62; 2, 62 ; clouds entirely overhead and a storm—the same re3, 61; 4, 58 ; 5, 56; 6, 55 ; 7, 54; 8, 53 ; 9, 55.

sult is stated in the Star in December, January, FebWednesday 8th, 5 o'clock 55°; 6, 56; 9, 58; 10,

ruary and March following each earthquake. E. M. 60; 11, 56; 12, 56 ; 1, 57 ; 2, 57 ; 3, 59 ; 4, 59; 5, From the Brooklyn Star, April 27, 1846. 6, 7, 56 ; 8, 54. Thursday 9th, 5 o'clock, A. M. 39 ; 6, 40; 8, 45 ;

TEMPERATURE, ECLIPSES, &c. 9, 48; 10, 48; 11,50; 12, 52; 1, 53; 2, 3, 52; 4, Saturday had a clouded atmosphere which mantled 53 ; 5, 50; 6, 46 ; 7, 48; 8, 43.

the Eclipse. The 23d, 24th, 25th and 26th, have Friday 10th, 5 o'clock A. M. 38 ; 6, 40; 8, 47 ; 10, been more or less cloudy. The temperature from 53 ; 11, 55 ; 12, 58; 1, 60; 2, 59; 3, 57; 4, 53; 5, sunrise to sunset, on Saturday vibrated but go Faren6, 50; 7, 8, 48.

heit., 8 o'clock 44; 9, 44; 10, 42: 11, 48; 12, 46 ; Saturday 11th, 7 o'clock A. M. 56 ; 8, 60; 9, 62 ; 12 30 minutes, middle of the eclipse, 47); 1, 45; 2, 10, 64; 11, 12, 1, 68 ; 2, 69; 3, 73; 4,70; 5,69 ; 6, 66 ; 47 ; 3, 47 ; 4, 48 ; 5, 51; 6, 48 : 8, 46; 9, 46. At 1 o'clock that afternoon a very black cloud, with Sunday, 26th, 5 o'clock, 44; 6, 42 1-2; 7, 44. 9, loose disturbed appendages like stalactites, was visible 47 ; half-past 9, 50 ; 12, 53; 1, 57; 2, 56; 3, 54; 4, in the west from the high grounds at Albany.

52 ; 6, 51; 7,50; 10, 47. On Sunday morning the 12th inst., rain fell about Monday, 27th, 4 o'clock, 43, 5, 42, 6, 43. 4 o'clock. At 6 o'clock, temperature 490 ; 11, 49 ; Sabbath morning, a few minutes past 5 o'clock, a 12,50; 2, 50; 4, 49; 6, 49. Snow fell at Utica during

most beautiful rainbow was visible in the west and that day three inches deep. I presume that we shall south of west, its centre was vertical at Brooklyn be able to learn something of the cause of this result Heights, its northern base appeared to extend to the from the south.

horizon and at a point a little north of Newark, N.

J., its southern extremity terminated at an elevation
about midway between its centre and the horizon, in
the direction of Fort Hamilton, L. I. The clouds in
the south west were of a deep violet tinge of the
softest hue; at the north, the great ethereal canopy
was without a cloud-on the heights of Staten Island,
six miles distant, the glass windows of the dwellings
were glowing with the bright rays of the morning
sun, which they reflected in a blaze of light that ap-
peared like sheets of the sun itself in its meridian
splendor—it was a beauteous, lovely, charming morn-
ing to commence a Christian's Sabbath-the air was
still, even the wind was sleeping--a ferry steamer was
rolling its active wheels upon the waters of the bay-all
else was still. I looked around to endeavor to ascertain
if any other human being was beholding and enjoy,
ing this beauteous scenery, I searched in vain, and
regretted that this gorgeous exhibition was lost to
thousands of our race.

E. M.
From the Brooklyn Star of May 5.

The complaints of the frequent and sudden changes
of the weather are very common-and. I hear them
in every section of the United States in which I travel.
The readers of the Star will find by the published
memorandums of my meteorlogical observations, that
these complaints should not be indulged. There are
sometimes great changes in the almosphere, but the
cause of such changes are not always ascertainable.
The earthquakes and the lightning have much to do
in producing these changes. Each of these exert a
most powerful influence upon the temperature of the
atmosphere, sometimes depressing it, and at other
times increasing it. The difference may arise from
the peculiar temperature of the locality in which the
action commenced, and varied, as the immediate at-
mosphere is more or less depressed. Snow and fog,
I have shewn, in several instances, resulted from one
and the same cause, the result in each case depends
upon the temperature of the atmosphere in which
the snow fell, or the fog floated ; that earthquakes are
the immediate cause in some instances and the light-
ningin others, I have shewn so conclusively, by record-
ed facts, as to leave no doubt, in my own mind, as to
the extraordinary effects of these two great operators.

In atmosphere in which metallic substances are floating, in a pulverescent state. as when raised by the wind in dust, or absorbed by the water of the atmosphere and held in solution, the lightning may, in its active movements bring into one compact body by magnetic influence and in doing this give it that impetus which puts it in such rapid motion, that gathers heat as it increases in velocity until at length the generating of the inflamable gasses within its body explode it, and throw the fragments through the air to fall in aerolites upon the earth.

During the passage of dense clouds through the atmosphere I have noticed that when a heavy thunderbolt breaks in the clouds, that the convulsions affect the atmosphere to a great distance, and this result is seen most distinctly in its operation upon animal fuids. Milk in deep cellars is frequently changed by the thunder, even at a great distance—here is the cause, and effect, which are both cognizable by every observing dairy man. Thus we have a practical illustration of the influence of the thunder upon animal fluids in one state, which may justify us in concluding that it bas some influence on the animal fluids, in all cases. It is true that thunder is not heard by the inhabitauts of every part of the earth-yet notwithstanding, it is certain that the inhabitants of every part of the earth feel its influence although they may not be aware of the cause. The well observed changes of the temperature, hourly, half hourly and quarter hourly, for a considerable length of time during the various seasons of the year, and the careful record of these compared with other atmospheric changes, are full of instruction, and when taken together form a mass of testimony that carries convincement to the deliberate judgment formed in the human mind. The changea. bleuess of the weather is the great question to which I wish to direct the readers attention, and to the fact that these changes are not so injurious to the human system as is generally considered, and the only difficulty is, that these changes which is the difficulty, which arises from a neglect to watch their approach.

The Journal of Commerce, of Tuesday morning the 28th of April contains an account of the death of a HON. STEPHEN ALLEN. We noticed a paragraph in one of the city papers stating that Mr. Allen had been absent from his seat in the Convention. Mrs. Allen is sick, and the absence of Mr. Allen is owing to that cause. The name of Mr. Allen was placed upon the ticket for the Convention without previous consultation with him and it is a sacrifice indeed under the circumstances for him to attend while the health of Mrs. Allen is in its present state.

BURTIS SKIDMORE, OF NEW-YORK. The name of Mr. Skidmore was brought before the State Convention during debate, a few days since, and some person whispered that Mr. S. was not resspectable. Mr. Brown, a member from Orange, reported the whisper, and Mr. Townsend rose and stated to the Convention, that he was personally acquainted with Mr. Skidmore, and paid him a compliment and thus rebuked the whisperer. It was a noble act in Mr. Townsend, for Mr. Skidmore and himself had been members of the same board of education at the same time and were political opponents. Mr. Townsend honored himself in defending Mr. Skidmore from the attacks of the lurking foe. Mr. Skidmore is one of our most active business men—a man of great personal independence of character-who knows no fear in a good cause. Mr. Skidmore has paid immense sums of money for shameful and outrageous assessments and he deems the assessment abuses a matter which the State Convention should remedy by guarding the citizens against such imposition in future. His efforts in this, deserve high commendation.

young man belonging to Norwich, in this state, by In the Island of Grenada, up to the 23d of May, lightning, on Saturday about one o'clock of the day. no rain had fallen for a long time and the drouth was The account is copied from the Norwich Journal.

very severe. Comparing the date of the Journal with the mail ar. Rain at Flatbush in 1846. rangements between Norwich and the city of New


4, 16-100 inches. York it appears that the Saturday referred to must February,

3, 56-100 be the 18th of April, the day on which the steamer March,

2, 78-100 Oregon ran on the rocks at Hurl Gate. The young man April,

3, 01-100 led a horse of his brother-in-law's into the stable to


7, 18-100 keep him out of the storm, and he was struck down June.

1, 12-100 as he came out of the stable; the horse was also killed. The event took place near Cooperstown, in Otsego Six months.

21, 81 100 county, about 220 miles from here. On Monday, the 27th, I sent a communication to the New-York Farmer Thunder shower at Columbus, Ohio, June 1st. and Mechanic, for the columns of that Journal, in Thunder storm at Ashfield, Mass. Five cattle killed which I suggested the probability that that disaster by lightning, June 19. Snow on the Allegany Mounwas caused by atmospheric action, at a distance, as tains in Huntingdon, Pa., on the 22d June. On the was the case in the shipwreck of the Swallow on the 29th of June a vessel from Liverpool for New-York Hudson, from an earthquake in Mexico; the ship- encountered a sudden squall. wreck of the John Minturn on our coast, from a lightning storm at Mobile; the shipwreck of the

COMPARISON OF CLIMATE. Henry Clay, packet ship, also on our coast, from an earthquake in Cuba and Maysville. Hurl Gate is a

The following synopsis of observations for the verry narrow strait and might be easily thus affected. month of June of the present year, made at Saltville, I sent to the Star office some time ago, a newspaper

on the south western mountains of Virginia, between printed at Toronto in Upper Canada, which contained

latitude 36 and 37; at Brooklyn Heights, between à report from the Star of an account of the storm of

latitude 40 and 41; and Syracuse between 43 and lightning and hail which crossed the Adirondack

44, show the difference of temperature morning, noon mountains, on the 20th of September, to which the

and evening. publisher of the Canada paper appended a remark,

MORNING AIR. that it accounted for the extraordinary commotion in The difference in temperature between Brooklyn the waters of Lake Ontario of that day, during which Heights and Saltville. Va., for the month of June at the sudden ebbing and flowing of the water left one

6 o'clock in the morning is as follows: Saltville, mean of the large Lake Steamers aground at the pier at 67° 16-30. Brooklyn Heights, 63 14-30. Difference Port Hope. The reader will perceive by referring to 4 2,300. The average temperature at sunrise, at my meteorlogical memorandums published in the Star

Syracuse for the month of June was 55° 12-30, and of the 24th of April that the temperature on Saturday on Brooklyn Heights for the same time 57° 02-30.the 18th, in the morning at 5 o'clock was 520 ; 7,55; Difference 10 20-30. 8, 62 ; 9, 66 ; 10, 67; 11, 71; 12, 72; 1, 2, 3, 78;

Heat of the Middle of Day.—The average heat at haff-past 3, 80; 4, 69; 5, 74; 6,70 ; 7,67 ; 8, 66 ; 2 P. M. for the month of June at Saltville was 75 9, 63.

3-30, and the average temperature at Brooklyn Heights The young man, it will be noticed, was killed at for the same hour for the same month, 73 25-30%. 1 o'clock P. M., the temperature here, it will be seen, Difference 10 8-30. Thus the difference between the was fixed for three hours, viz: 1, 2, 3, and at 78, an mountain air of Saltville, and the ocean air of Brookextraordinary high temperature.

At the time the

lyn Heights is greater at night than during the day. thunderbolt broke upon the young man the atmos

At Syracuse, at 3 P. M., during the month of June phere here became fixed.

the average temperature was 750 4-30. On BrookThe temperature of the atmosphere from the time

lyn Heights for the same hour during the same month my account published in the Star of April 27th leaves

the averge temperature was 73° 29-30. Difference off, to the date of this memorandum is as follows, viz: 1° 5-30. Monday morning, 27th, 9 o'clock, 61; half-past 9, 64;

The highest temperature at Syracuse in June was 12, 65 ; 1, 66 ; 2, 58 ; 3, 69; 4, 67 ; 5, 65; 6, 62; 90°-the lowest 41. Difference 49°. 9, 57; 10, 55.

The highest temperature at Saltville in June was Tuesday, 28th, 4 o'clock, 48; 5, 48; 6, 52; 7,58 ; 85°, the lowest 58—differenee, 27°. 8, 64; 2, 72; 3, 71 1-2 ; 4, 67 ; 5, 65 ; 6, 60; 7, 58; The highest temperature on Brooklyn heights during 9, 53; 10, 50.

the month of June was 84°—the lowest 520. DifferWednesday, 29th, 4 o'clock, 50 ; 5,50 ; 6, 50 ; 7,

ence 320 50; 8, 50; 9, 50.

Evening Air.—The average temperature of the Thus we have another night in which the atmos

evening almosphere for the month of June at Saltville phere has been stationery in temperature. This morn- on the south western mountains of Virginia, near the ing rain fell in a gentle shower between 7 and 8

Tennessee line, at 9 o'clock was 709 09,30; at Syrao'clock. Rain fell at Baltimore during the eclipse on cuse, Onondago County, N. Y., 61° 23-30, and at Saturday and the day following.

Brooklyn New-York, 650 23-30. Thus there is go From the Brooklyn Star, April 30, 1846. 16-30 difference between Syracuse and Saltville, and THE WEATHER.

4° 16-30 between Brooklyn Heights and Saltville.

The difference in longitude between Brooklyn Thursday morning 4 o'clock, April 30.--The tem

Heights and Saltville is about 8 degrees, equal to 32 perature yesterday reached 57°, and vibrated con

minutes difference at sunrise, unless varied by the siderably—the lowest point was 50, at which it now altitude of the ground on which Saltville is built above is. During the night it fell 20.

tide water, and the height of mountains east of SaltIn my communication sent you yesterday, I stated the fixedness of the temperature the previous night.

ville and contiguous thereto. The difference in long.

between Brooklyn Heights and Syracuse is about 20 I have now to notice the profuse storm which follow- 15' or nine minutes difference in the rising of the sun. ed. It will be seen by referring back to my published memorandums that a storm followed the same state of atmosphere December 23; January 31 ; Feb.

Equilibrinm.—Temperature July 26, 9 P. M. 69°,

and continued at that until near 8 o'clock A. M. 27th. 28, March 23, and April 23—(at the South)—and now of yesterday, of the 28th here.

E. M.


Senator Dix, while this bill was under considera

tion in the Senate of the United States, remarked At Rochester N. Y., 4,96-100 inches. At Phila- that it originated with himself and a merchant delphia, Pa., 3,30-100. At Flatbush, N. Y., 1,12-100. in the city of New-York, now a member of the New At Syracuse, N. Y., 4 inches. At Athens, Georgia, York State Convention. That member of the State 9, 93-100 inches of Rain fell between the 1st and 20th Convention is the Hon. SOLOMON Townsend. Mr. of June.

Townsend made a voyage to Europe in 1845, and Rain commenced falling at Baltimore, June 30th, one of the objects of his visit to England was to learn and continued for 24 hours, doing great damage. something of the warehousing system in that country:

Accounts from Ponce, Porto Rico, of June 12th, say Mr. Townsend is a practical man, and has been found that the rains of late have been heavy.

a useful member of every public body in which he Rain fell in Barbadoes early in April.

had a seat.


The Hon. SOLOMON TOWNSEND has offered in the
State Convention a resolution to equalize Taxation, as

“ Resolved, that the Committee on the Public Revenues (No. 3) be required to consider the propriety of instituting by Constitutional enactment à State Board of Assessors with power to equitably adjust the relative appraisement of the real and personal estate in the several counties with reference to a just and uniform system of state or national taxation."

This is an important measure-the equitable valuatiou of the property, however has nothing to do with the imposition of the tax—the valuation is made by one sei of officers, and the tax imposed by another; unless we come to a tariff of “national taxation," in which each particular species of property is to be assessed, a specific amount--as for example, a gold watch $10; a silver watch $2; a diamond ring, $50. and a plain gold ring $1, &c. When we come to that state of things voters will attend the polls, every mother's son of them, and change all rulers forthwith. Voluntary payments in the shape of duties upon foreign goods is the easiest and best way of supporting the general government, and as far as State taxation is concerned, ''retrenchment" (Governor Morton recommended) as a substitute.

State Governments are designed for the administration of law, and not for carrying on either farming, mercantile, mechanical, manufacturing or Commercial business.

Massachusetts has a system of adjusting the assessments in the different counties of the State and making them all equal -a good system.

We hope Mr. Townsond will not dream of national direct taxation. Such a measure would change the occupancy of every office in the Union.

An individual who consumes a dutiable article pays a voluntary tax, but if a direct tax is to be levied, then he must pay an arbitrar tax.

A direct tax might have the effect of preserving peace, for an aggressive war cannot long be continued by arbitrary taxation, and we want no war, for the penalty, is fearfully awful

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