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“ POISONS” IN OHIO.
vitalizer" occasioned no surprise, and as to Under the statute of Ohio requiring the “Bromidia," the analysis merely verified the "poison and cross-bones" label on all med- accuracy of its label; but the sensation was in icines “the indiscriminate or careless use of the alleged discovery of morphine in an emulwhich would be destructive of human life," the sion which was very extensively advertised as commissioner of that state recently instituted a food. Should the analyses of this emulsion suits against two Toledo druggists for selling prove to be correct, the men responsible for certain proprietary preparations in samples of the terrible wrong inflicted upon the innocent which analyses made by two departinent victims of their deception could not be buried chemists disclosed the presence of poisons as in infamy too deep or lashed with punishment follows, the results of the two analyses being too severe. We cannot believe, however, that given under each preparation:
a reputable mercantile firm could be guilty of Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup:
such criminal folly. We cannot but believe 1. Contains morphine, aboui 1 10th grain to
that the analyses are wrong, and is right, that the ounce. 2. Per cent alcohol, 6 5-10; morphine, calcu
they are of samples innocently obtained from lated as morphine sulphate, 4 grain to a source hostile to the fame and prosperity of the bottle.
the manufacturers. This belief is strengthened Ayers' Cherry Pectoral: 1. Contains morphine, about 1-10th grain to
by the sworn protests of the manufacturers, the ounce.
whose challenge for a complete investigation is 2. Morphine, as morphine sulphate, per cent,
so specific and positive as to compel the con0.361; about 2 grains 10 12 fluid ounces.
clusion that they are the victims of a grave Scott's Emulsion of Cod. Liver Oil: 1. Contains about 1.10ih grain morphine to
injustice. the ounce.
But whatever may be the accuracy or other2. Morphine, 18 grain to 1 ounce. Calculated as morphine sulphate.
wise of these reports, we agree with the Dr. Birney's Catarıh Powder:
Western Druggist in the declaration that the 1. Coniains cocaine hydrochlorate, 2.50 per principle underlying the law and these prosecu2. Conforms to label. Cocaine hydrochlorate,
tions in Ohio is sacredly right. Too long have 2.45 per cent.
the makers of catarıh powders and other Dr. Agnew's Catarrh Powder:
infamous compounds pursued their way with 1. Contains menihol, bismuih and cocaine hydrochlorate.
impunity. Morphine and cocaine in innocent 2. Cocaine hydrochlorate, 5.32 per cent.
disguise have been luring heir tens of thou: Bromidia:
sands to moral and physical destruction, and 1. Contains 15 grains chloral hydrate to every
all because the people have been too indifferent fluid dram. 2. Cun'orms to label. Chloral hydrate prac
or our legislators too busy or too readily tically 15 grains to 1 fluid dram.' No influenced by the corrupt pleadings of a nos
alkaloids or coal iar preparations present. Dr. Wheeler's Nerve Vitalzer:
trum-fed press to come to the rescue. Every 1. Contains bromide potash and chioral state has laws against the indiscriminate sale hydrale.
of poisons, which are not to be delivered 10 2. Alcohol about 10 per cent; chlorolorm, about 1 dram 101 pint; chloral hydrate,
minors, nor to be sold without registration of about 5 grains.
the “quantity, kind and alleged purpose," but We understand that the essential correctness these same poisons, il sold under a disguised of the above analyses is disputed by none of
under false representations and the manulacturers excepting Messrs. Scott & promises, may be sold without limit or restricBowne for their “emulsion,” who, in a convinc- rion if only put up and uffered as a patent ing interview, have entered a vehement denial, medicine. What peculiar sanctity attaches to asserting that morphine has never entered into a proprietary package or label that it should the manufacture of their product, and if any enjoy these remarkable immunities and priviwas found it must have been put there for a leges? A poison is a poison if sold honestly as purpose.
a poison; it is more than a poison if concealed The act of the commissioner has been fiercely under the disguise of a “syrup," a “vitalizer," assailed, but, it would seem, without sufficient or any other of the seductive utles that human
On the reports of his chemists he had greed can devise. It we need laws against the no alternative but to take summary action by sale of open poisons, we need them intinitely immediate prosecutions. Th:se reports in the more aga nst ihese venomous secrets whose cases of the notorious catarrh powders, of the sting is in the dark and whose victims are the suo:hing syrup, "ch:rry pectoral," and "nerve unsuspecting, the innocent and the helpless.
Osteopathy Once More.— The so-called osteo- terraced lawns, with a broad driveway leading paths have recently made another bid for to the main entrance in the center of the Belden notoriety in this city. A noted (according to avenue facade. his own account) English bonesetter came to The buildings, erected at a cost of nearly Chicago a few weeks ago, secured a suite of a quarter of a million dollars, are imposing in rooms in a prominent hotel, and in a spirit their simple and substantial elegance, of fireof philanthropy advertised that he would treat proof construction throughorit, arranged acall cases without money and without price. cording to the most approved hygienic plans He neglected, however, to go through the for- and equipped with the most modern sanitary mality of obtaining a license to practice med. furniture and appliances. The only evidence icine, and so the state board of health, which of wood in the construction is in the doors and has no bowels of compassion, rudely notified window frames; tiling, marble and plaster him to present his credentials, in default of rendering the entire interior as well-nigh which it would be compelled to refuse to allow aseptic as possible through modern art. The him to carry on his great work of charity. In heating, lighting and ventilation are perfect this high-handed action the bonesetter evidently and effect a climax in the special operating saw a grand chance for free advertising, and he room with an amphithe atre for students. improved it. The interviewers thronged about A great concourse of medical men and subhim, and he expatiated upon his qualitications stantial citizens, patrons of the hospital, graced for practice (which have apparently not been the occasion, the members of the staff acting verified), upon the cures he had wrought (which as cicerones, with Dr. Fernand Henrotin as have not yet been demonstrated), upon the
master of ceremonies. Among the many good he was about to do ihe suffering thou- physicians present perhaps the most interestsands of Chicago (which is thus far hypo- ing was the tall, military figure of Dr. Ernst thetical), and upon the eminent medical men chmidt, one of the founders of the hospital who were holding up his hands (one of whom and the Nestor of the German medical prois president of the notorious successor to the fession in Chicago, together with his three notorious Illinois Health University, and an. stalwart sons, Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, the able other the head of the so-called school of osteop. and active physician in charge; Fred M. athy, which considers the knowledge of Schmidt, the well-known member of the state anatomy advisable but not essential, and whose board of pharmacy, and last but not least, cardinal requirement for graduation is appar- Richard Schmidt, the architect, to whose untirently $300, and incidentally, if the student has ing energy and skill the noble edifice owes its time to spare, a little study).
construction. The hospital has a capacity of The philanthropic gentleman, failing to suc- about 700 beds. ceed in his laudable endeavors, announced that
Anesthetics. – The following statistics are he would treat patients by the hands of trained
given in the British Medical Journal by Mr. H. assistants under his direct supervision, but
Bellamy Gardner, (Medical Review of Reviews): whether the afflicted could not swallow the
Chloroform... ..1 death in 3.258 transfer of his heaven-sent gifts to others, or
Echer.... ..1 death in 14.987 whetner they became aroused to the fact that The personal experience of Dr. Gurlt of even he was not possessed of divine attributes, Berlin showed at all events the patients did not materialize,
1 in 2,614 the bonesetter shook off the dust of his feet
1 in 8,431 against Chicago, and departed for the gray M. Landau quoted German statistics: fields and foggy pastures of England.
.1 in 3 111 Ether....
.1 in 14 640
and the English as: The Alexian Brothers' Hospital. – On the
.1 in 3,749 completion of the Alexian Brothers' Hospital in
1 in 16,675 Chicago the medical staff of the hospital held
The above statistics combined show: a reception Sunday afternoon, December 18,
.1 in 3 121 largely patronized by medical men and the pub
.1 in 15,587 lic. The new hospital occupies an entire square, If statistics are reliable, and if we are to bounded by Racine, Fullerton and Belden draw our lessons from them, are we to conavenues and Lewis street, forming a hollow tinue to favor the selection of chloroform in square with a court-yard, and surrounded by cases of election:
Abuse of Medical Charities.-The St. Louis Medical Society appointed a committee to investigate the abuse of medical charity in that city. The work of this committee is voiced by Dr. Emory Lanphear in the American Journal of Surgery and Gynecology. The actions of this committee are endorsed by all save about one hundred members of the medical fraternity of St. Louis, and wherever charity abuse is practiced comes forth the cry “Amen! Brother Lanphear! and God speed you! The way of the reformer is hard, and Dr. Lanphear will doubtless be brought to realize how truly “Restorations are the most bloody of all revolutions.” The Medical Standard heartily endorses the good work so heroically begun by this comimitiee. To the Chicago Medical Society we would say, "Go ye and do likewise."
The Communion Cup.— The Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery notes with satisfaction that at a meeting of the American Publ.c Health Association in Philadelphia a resolution was adopted endorsing the actions of a number of churches in adopting the use of a number of individual cups in administering the communion wine. What will ihe good Deacon Doctor of the old school say to this? Are we not to be priviiged to eat at the Lord's Supper without having our minds distracted by the germ phobia? However, we endorse the action of 1 hese churches, and hope all will follow their example. Aside from the prevention of infection, such a custom recommends itself in its sense of refinement.
Specialism.- The following declarations concerning the mutual obligations of the specialist and the physician have been formulated by the Medical Society of the Ninth District of Vienna (Med. Record): (1) The specialist is a physician who renounces practice in all branches of medicine with the exception of a well-defined part. (2) The specialist should undertake no treatment without an understanding with the physician of the patient or of his family. (3) The physician should be informed of the diagnosis made, and his advice should be sought for important interventions. (4) If ii is not possible for the physician to direct the treatment to be followed, the specialist should permit him to take part in it to the extent of his aptitude. (5) The patient can not be sent by the specialist to a third physician unless with the consent of the physician in ordinary.
Actinomycosis in Man.- Dr. John Ruhrah of No. 953 Madison avenue, Ballimore, asks to be permitted to make use of the columns of this journal to obtain information concerning the occurrence of actinomycosis hon inis in America. He has collected all the published cases and feels sure that others have been observed. He will be grateful for full notes on these cases. In addition to the general description he would like to know at what time the organism was observed, what the surgical and medical treatment was, and the result. He would also like any noies on cases already published where further developments have occurred, and wll give full credit to the observers when the collected cases are reporied.
The Laryngoscope.-The editors of the Laryngoscope announce that with the January, 1898, issue a foreign edition of their journal will be published by Messrs. John Wright & 1 o. of Eristol, England. This is a new departure in the field of special inedical journalism, and is a distinct recognition of the esteem in which the American specialists in d seases of the nose, throat and ear are held abroad We congratulate the Laryngoscope, and wish it success in the new venture.
Testimony and Compensation.—The Illinois supreme court has decided, in a test case, that unless a stipulation has been made, physicans must give expert testimony in court when called upon without other compensation than regular witness fees. This decision shouid p ompt the profession of the state to an active effuit 10 secure the enactment of a statutory provis in which will assure to physicians their undoubted rights in this relation.
Must Alcohol Go?- The Woman's Christian Temperance Union held their international annual meeting last month in Toronto. As usual fanaticism did not fail to crop out. Mrs. S. J. Cray, in her blue ribbon enthusiasm,
INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN WOMEN.
BY E. C. DUDLEY, A. M., M. D.,
PROFESSOR OF DISEASES OF WOMEN, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY MEDICAL SCHOOL; GYNECOLOGIST TO
ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL, CHIAGO.
reaction which living tissue exhibi s to morbid Infection of any one of the reproductive irritation. This definition being correct, two organs is liable to have the closest relations to conditions must be cssential for the develop. similar infection of a part or all of the others. ment of the infection: For this reason an intelligent consideration and 1. The soil must be prepared and ready to sa isfactory explanation of the morbid pro- react to the morbid irritation. Clearly, tissue cesjes in any one organ may necessitate a study which has the power to resist the irritation and of the infection of the pelvic organs as a to hold it within physiological bounds will no: whole.
inflame. The distinction between infection and inflam- 2. The irritating influences must be presen'. mation is of the greatest practical importance. These conditions divide themselves into preInfection is that condition in which foreign disposing and exciting causes. The predispos. media of irritation have gained access to the ing causes may be systemic or local. body and, either mechanically or by means of The Systemic Predisposing Causes include their products, disturb its functions. These whatever tends to render the system less resistmedia are capable of being transmitted to other ant to morbid influences. The so-called diatheses individuals; at least the invading irritant, if fall under this head; anemia diabetes, rheumaknown, is of bacterial origin in most cases. The tism, gout. lithemia and cholemia are examples. organisms unless arrested are prone to multiply,
The Local Predisposing Causes comprise to spread into new territory, to transmit their
whatever contributes to make the organs an toxine products to the general circulation and
accessible and receptive soil for infection. may even destroy life.
They are o vious in the following anatomical The local territory irritated by the organisms
and physiological conditions: The genital and their toxines, becomes a center to which
tract, from the vulva to the peritoneum, is an leucocytes in large numbers rapidly migrate,
open canal patent to the atmosphere below and and in this way the process often called sero- terminating above in the free open ends of th: plastic infiltration is esiablished. By this infil- Fallopian tubes. It is open not only 10 such tration a limiting wall is formed around the
microbic germs as abound in the air and peneinfected space. This wall contines the infective
trate everywhere, but it is also a place of deposit process to narrow limits and may protect the for virulent bacteria. general system against the poison. The forma
The rupture of the capillary vessels of ihe tion of the limiting wall gives rise to heat,
endometrium in menstruation and of the redness, pain and swelling; this is inflamma- Graafian follicles in ovulation, although physition. In view of these facis inflammation is
ological, result in solutions of continuity ard not really the disease, but an effort to limit the
hemorrhage, and are therefore traumatisms. disease. The almost universal use of the word These iraumatisms and the menstrual engorgeinflammation to signify the disease makes it
ment of the pelvic organs under healthy condifficult in the description of the morbid pro- ditions pass by with little or no discomfort, but cesses to conform to the ideas above expressed.
if some morbid irritation upset the normal The attempt will, hon ever, be made io use the
balance of nutrition, the menstrual congestion two words, infection and inflammation, in their
may become pathological and may be the first proper relations.
stage of an inflammation, or the morbid conIt is important to remember that the study of
gestion may be set up in the menstrual period the infection of an organ or a group of organs independently of the menstrual congestion. is simply the study of their anatomy and The liability, however, to inflammation during physiology as modified by that infection. The the menstrual week is greater. inflammatory process has been defined as the
In addition to the physiological traumatisms
already mentioned, i he traumatisms of parturi* Revised from an introductory lecture given at the Northwestern University Medical School.
tion, of abortion, of improper local treatment,
and of operations, still further open the way reproductive capacity. A direct experiment for the entrance of infections. Violent coiius, from pure culture from a gleety discharge of masturbation, the careless use of the unclean two years' standing gave the following interestcatheter, impure water in baching and soiled ing results: (1) Attempted reinfection of the linen in the toilet are some of the means by original urethra with this culture was always a which gonorrheæ syphilitic and other infections failure. (2) The culture when transplanted to mav develop in the genital tract.
a coccus-free urethra produced typical acute gonThe conditions of utero gestation, parturition orrhea. (3) Infection from this back again to the and the puerperium are most perilous; hence, original urethra gave a fresh gonorrhea, which, infection of the puerperal woman is more de. after a typical acute course of five or six weeks, structive. Decomposed secretions and the prod. again subsided into a chronic gleet. Thus by ucts of fatiy degeneration from involution and passing the gonococci through another individ. from the menopause favor the development of ual--that is, through a new culture groundpathogenic microbes. Tumors, displacements, they become again virulent to the urethra tight lacing and constipation are among the which was invulnerable to them before. common local predisposing causes of morbid This explains the fact that an apparently congestion in the pelvis. The predisposing healthy subject of chronic gonorrhea may infect causes already outlined clearly supply the first his hitherto uninfected wife and become again condition of infection-preparation of the soil. infected from her; the gonococci by passing
The exciting causes comprise agents which through the new culture of the wife again have the power to produce and to maintain become virulent for the husband. In due morbid irritation. Greatly preponderating, at tinie each becomes tolerant of the germ which, least among these, are the pathogenic microbes however, may develop acute infection in and their products. The extent to which another person. The common notion that inflammation may be produced by irritants of gonorrhea in women may be chronic from the non bacterial origin, without the presence of beginning is weakened by the experiments of any bacteria whatever, is a question not fully Wertheim. We can now understand why the settled. Among the pathogenic microbes not gonococcus, even after years of apparent cure, seldom found in the genitalia are the staphy- may regain its full virulence. lococci and streptococci of suppuration, the The greatest danger is of extension to the bacillus tuberculosis, the bacıllus coli communis Fallopian tubes. The microbe 'may be found and the pneumococcus of Fraenkel. Bladder in the uterus and tubes long after it has disparasites and the saprophytes from the rectum appeared from the vagina. The pavement and colon have easy access. The bacillus coli epithelium of the vagina and the presence of communis lives in an acid media and can thus the lactic acid bacteria normally found there by easily pass through the acid secretion of the Doederlein make the vagina relatively immune. vagina to the uterus.
The crypts of the uterine and tubal mucosa The gonococcus of Neisser is one of the most furnish a ready resting place for the germ'; even frequent, destructive and insidious factors in here, in many cases, it is only found during the genito-urinary infection. Its chief power for exacerbations. Menstruation and the uric acid harm lies in the lasting vitality of the germ diathesis favor but do not insure its revival. It long after apparent cure. The gonococcus may for a long period remain concealed in a may remain inactive in the mucous crypts, semi quiescent state, a destroyer of health, a liable at any time, even while quiescent in the
to life. The frequency of chronic individual; to be communicated to another. gonorrhea- the latest gonorrhea of Noeggerath Hence, many an innocent and previously -has been variously estimated. There are healthy woman, shortly after marriage to a reasons to fear, however, that the percentage man who supposed himself to have been cured is very high. Saengere announces that 25 per of gonorrhea years before, may by contact with cent of his hospital and private patients have the attenuated virus, get a destructive gonor- gonorrhea. Lomer* found the diplococcus in rheal infection of the genito urinary organs. fully 60 per cent of the cases in Schroeder's
Some most important observations have clinic. One observer places the average as high recently been made by Wertheim. He reports as 80 per cent. that human serum agar is the best culture The statistics above quoted are taken from ground for gonococci. In this culture, at 40 to clinics largely made up of prostitutes and semi43 degrees Centigrade, they retain their full prostitutes, a fact which will necessarily modify