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ART. 62. 1. The trees to be cut shall be selected and cut down close to the ground, care being taken that no damage be done in falling to the adjacent trees. The concessioner shall compactly pile the branches of all trees felled, and place said branches where the least damage shall be done to the younger growth.
2. Forest products shall be transported as far as possible by routes where there are few trees, avoiding as far as practicable the destruction of the younger growth.
3. Concessioners shall be held responsible for any damage to the forests through failure to comply with the above requirements. They shall also be held responsible for violations of said regulations on the part of their representatives or their employees.
ART. 63. When the cutting or gathering of forest products has been finished, the concessioner shall notify in writing the nearest forestry official of the place where said product is deposited, the classes and amount of the same, and its destination.
He shall also state if he has left any felled timber in the forest, and if so, the number of trees and the classes.
A forestry official shall verify the statement” of forest products presented by the concessioner, examining and measuring the same. He will make out, in duplicate, the manifest for each shipment, and give one copy of this to the concessioner.
ART. 64. The concessioner shall not load, sell, nor use any forest product which has not been paid for, unless he has had express authority from the chief of the forestry bureau, and has given a satisfactory guaranty to that official.
Stations have been established at the following places:
A number of other stations will be established in the near future, as conditions permit.
As the service grows, more and more difficulty is experienced in securing competent native officials. The Filipino knows nothing of estimating standing timber, selection of trees to be felled, or the protection of the younger growth. These must be taught him by trained foresters from other countries. Although authority has been received by the undersigned to employ trained foresters in other countries, none have as yet been secured, with the exception of the two from the United States noted above. The two mentioned are not what we would call foresters, but are good, practical lumbermen and will render good service. We must look to tropical India and Java for trained men. A recent letter from Java informs this office that an offer of $200 gold per month will not induce any of their officials to enter our service, as their trained men receive the following salaries: Foresters, from $130 to $310 gold per month; inspectors, from $320 to $440 gold per month; chief inspectors, from $140 to $600 gold per month.
The foresters of India are also very well paid, and, in addition, the forestry officials of all countries but ours have the prospect of retirement with pay after a certain number of years' service, or for disability. As a rule, the scientific forester has taken his degree before entering the forest school; then, after a course of between two and three years, he enters the lower ranks of the forestry service in his country and
has a well-paid position, with a prospect of retirement for disability or for age. Service in the Philippines involves some danger, not only from the pernicious fevers, but, at the present time, from insurgents. A forester from Java would not care to give up his life position for service in the Philippines with a prospect of disability and no government aid afterwards. We have here a vast virgin field for scientific investigation, which makes the Philippine Islands to-day one of the most attractive fields for original work, but the objections noted above deter many from entering the service.
Many applications are being received from parties in the United States desiring to enter the forestry service. Very few applicants have had any training as foresters; some have been engaged in logging business and sawmills, and some apparently are anxious only for a change of scene. Others seek this service as a means of furthering schemes for future timber exploitation by private parties. Applicants residing in the United States are required to pass a civil-service examination, prepared by the Bureau of Forestry in Washington. Applicants in Manila are required to take a civil-service examination there.
Two expeditions are in the field at present: One, consisting of an assistant forester and botanist, is in southern Mindanao investigating the varieties and amount of native-tree species producing gutta-percha, rubber, and other gums; another party, consisting of a forester and assistant forester, is in the Camarines making a thorough investigation of the timber on the tract of public land operated over by the largest lumber concern of the Philippine Islands. A forestry official is stationed permanently near the headquarters of this concern. А report from this expedition will inform this office of the amount and variety of timber standing in this tract, methods of felling and hauling, the condition of the younger growth, whether or not forestry regulations are strictly complied with; in fact, will report on all matters of interest to the forestry service. From previous reports from this same region we are led to believe that the cutting by this company is a mere thinning of the forest, and works an actual improvement of forest conditions, the annual growth on this tract being many times the volume extracted by this company each year. At present this company is somewhat hampered by the loss of nearly all of their carabaos, due to an epidemic of rinderpest which recently swept over the islands, carry. ing off many thousands of these animals, which are the only source transportation in the islands.
The forestry official acting as collector for the bureau was sent in January, 1901, to Zamboango, province of Mindanao, to make a collection of the leaves, fruit, and flowers of the native-tree species found there. He returned in three months with 425 varieties of wood and leaf with the fruit and flower of many. This collection was made within a very limited area in this province, and will give some idea of the problems to be solved by the forestry service when a small tract with several hundred tree species is to be prepared for the lumberman.
A rational forestry policy will necessitate the felling of all trees by selection. This will be met by the objection of the lumbermen that there is no market for four or five hundred varieties of tree species thus selected. The duty of finding a market for such varieties devolves upon the forestry bureau. The furniture makers of America import vast quantities of hardwood from Central and South America,
and in order to divert their attention to the woods of the Philippines 100 varieties of specially selected woods were recently gathered together and shipped to the United States, where they will be placed on exhibition at Buffalo, and later at the Department of Agriculture in Washington.
Anyone acquainted with American methods of lumbering, and especially anyone from the lake regions of the United States, will realize that if every tree for felling is not selected and rigid supervision of all logging operations not insisted upon, great and irremediable loss will result
. Rigid supervision is indispensable and is only possible when thoroughly trained scientific men are employed. The existing regulations provide ample safeguards against forest devastation, but the immediate need is for a trained corps of foresters to properly enforce these regulations.
A forestry school should be organized as soon as possible, and the first foresters employed should give part of their time to the training of native officials now in the service. In time specially qualified graduates from colleges in the Philippines should be offered inducements to enter the forestry school and thus provide for the extension of the service.
The Spanish forestry laws and regulations in force in August, 1898, were found to be excellent, practicable, and in line with similar laws and regulations of Europe, where the science of forestry has reached such a high state of perfection. These laws and regulations, up to the time of our occupation, had not been fully enforced and scientific forestry not practiced, as the records and testimony of officials show.
Under the Spanish administration licensees cut any and everything. Trees to be felled were not selected, no minimum size was prescribed, valuable rubber and gutta-percha trees were felled, and the most valuable woods used as firewood; in fact the officials began their work after the trees left the forest and not before.
The Spanish forestry regulations were translated and a new set compiled, based practically upon the old, but arranged in more compact form. Some changes were made, as will be noted below. Blank forms similar to the old are used, with some additions, nearly all of which are printed in Spanish with English notes. The regulations went into effect July 1, 1900,"and were published in the form of a general order (No. 92) from the office of the United States military governor of the Philippine Islands, dated Manila, P. I., June 27, 1900. These regulations have not been amended since publication.
As soon as peace is thoroughly established in the islands and officials can work in the field without danger, data will be secured upon which to base a revision of the present regulations. However, the regulations as enforced at present seem to give general satisfaction. Several thousand copies were printed, both in Spanish and English, and sent to every part of the islands. Át least one copy is sent with each license, and the attention of the licensee is drawn to the fact that the regulations must be followed.
These regulations consist of 77 articles arranged in 5 chapters. Chapter 1 is entitled “Tariff on state timber and instructions for its application.” In this chapter we find the tree species of the islands
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classified into six groups, the unit of measure being the cubic foot. The price per cubic foot for state timber is as follows:
of varieties. Superior group, 14 cents Mexican.
15 First group, 10 cents Mexican..
20 Second group, 8 cents Mexican.
86 Third group, 3 cents Mexican
133 Fourth group, 2 cents Mexican..
234 Fifth group, 1 cent Mexican..
33 At present the timber is classified and measured after it has been felled and piled. In appraising the valuation of timber hewn on four sides, 25 per cent is added for wood lost in hewing; sawed timber has 15 per cent added; ebony has 200 per cent added, and camagon 100 per cent added. The wood of groups 3, 4, and 5 only will be cut for fuel, thus saving from felling for this purpose 121 tree species of higher grades. This restriction is noted on back of license. In the Spanish regulations the tree species were arranged in five groups, with a maximum valuation of 6 cents per cubic foot. The present regulations set aside fifteen of the most valuable woods as a superior group and place a valuation on them of 14 cents per cubic foot; this price acts as a special protection for these valuable species and tends to divert the lumbermen to other varieties at a lower rate. Some objection was raised to the increased valuation placed on forest products, but it has been found that the above valuation remains very close to 5 per cent of the present market price of timber in Manila.
Chapter 2 is entitled “Utilization of timber in the state forests," prescribes how timber should be felled and moved, and the procedure necessary before the licensee can take his product to market.
Chapter 3 has to do with the gratuitous use of state timber. It provides for the free use of timber by needy residents, and for timber for public works.
Chapter 4 is entitled "Firewood for market."
Chapter 5 contains provisions relating to the extraction of guttapercha and other gums.
Chapter 6, general provisions.
Licenses are issued by the officer in charge of the forestry service upon written application made either to the central office in Manila or to any of the forestry officials in the provinces. If application is made in the provinces, the forestry official sends the application to his immediate chief, with some recommendation as to the character and responsibility of the applicant. The indorsement also must approve or disapprove the application, with the reasons therefor. An applicant must state just what forest product he wishes to take from the public land, and must also specify the district where he wishes to operate. Under Spanish administration this district was usually a province. As a rule, during the last six months we have been confining lincenses to a more limited area and close to some pueblo. By this means we know at once where to place the responsibility for any violation of the forestry regulations, as to manner of felling and removing of forest products. Where a number of licensees are operating in one province it is difficult at times to know just where to place the responsibility for any infractions, as noted above.
The application for a license finally reaches the central office at Manila, containing the indorsements of the forestry officials and with evidence of the character and responsibility of the applicant.
Licenses are issued on special forms: There is the timber license, the firewood license, the gratuitous license, and then a general form to include any special product desired, such as gutta-percha, rubber, and other gums. Where the government valuation of a forest product has not been specifically mentioned in the regulations, provision is made that a valuation of 10 per cent on the prevailing market price in Manila will be charged for such product. The licenses are issued for one year, and may be revoked for violation of the regulations. A gratuitous license is issued to needy residents upon application, accompanied by a certificate by the president of the town in which the applicant resides, to the effect that the applicant is a needy resident and that he should be granted the license. This license runs for a period of six months. The licensee is not permitted to utilize more than 1,000 cubic feet of timber, and is prohibited from utilizing tree species of the superior and first groups. (Thirty-five tree species thus protected; this restriction is noted on back of license.) À gratuitous license may also be issued to government officials upon written application, stating the public work for which such timber is to be used and the amount and variety of woods desired.
A list of licenses is sent to the forestry officials in the provinces, and the instructions of these officials provide for the supervision of the methods of operation in the forest of the various licensees.
Parties bringing into market forest products without license are fined for first offenses 25 per cent of the valuation of said products, an increased fine for the second offense, and confiscation of products with a fine of 100 per cent provided for the third offense.
It has been found that many of the dealers in forest products, and not the actual loggers in the woods, were the holders of licenses. This has been the subject of careful investigation during the past six months, and as far as possible none but the actual lumbermen working in the forest are now given licenses.
Owing to the disturbed conditions in the islands many natives engaged in logging were afraid to leave their districts and go far from home, and as the forestry officials were always in towns garrisoned by United States troops, many natives never came in contact with the forestry officials, and operated in the forests without license. As conditions improve, this difficulty will be removed.
Under Spanish administration no form of license was issued. The applicant received his letter of application with an indorsement of the central office in Manila, stating whether or not he was permitted to utilize the forest products.
Prior to March 2, 1901, 467 licenses had been granted by the forestry bureau at Manila.
Up to May 14, 1901, the number of licenses granted by the military government were as follows: Timber. Firewood. Rubber and other gums. Dyewood
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