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knowledge of the past, present and future great five foot reflector now being conof the sun and should throw light on the structed at the observatory shops in problems of the evolution of the stars, Pasadena. This mirror is expected to be from nebulae through successive stages the most powerful solar instrument in to that of a red star, which our sun will existence. ultimately become.
The other important telescope in use at Foremost among the instruments em- Mount Wilson is the Bruce photographic ployed at the observatory is the great telescope, which is employed by Prof. Snow reflecting telescope. This is con- Barnard in photographing the stars and tained in a horizontal structure 220 feet nebulae, especially the great nebulosities long, supported on granite pedestals, of the Milky Way. The illustrations with shingled roof and canvas sides in the form of louvres or curtains, so adjusted as to permit the free circulation of air. This unique shed is not only an observatory, but a workshop and laboratory as well. At one end the massive coelostat pier rises thirty-five feet from the ground; upon it are located two plane mirrors, one of which is adjusted so as to be constantly in focus to receive the sun's rays at any angle in the sky, from which they are transferred to the stationary mirror and reflected from the latter to either of two concave mirrors. There mirrors
Receiving END OF GREAT REFLECTOR TELESCOPE WITH Which OBSERVATIONS reflect the images of the
ARE BEING TAKEN. sun, which are so distinct and sharp as to seem almost tangi- show the nine mile trail to the summit ble and may be examined and photo- over which the materials and equipment graphed at will. One mirror produces for the observatory were hauled to the an image of the sun seven inches in di- summit on muleback and on a specially ameter at a distance of sixty feet, the
devised truck. The building occupied by other a sixteen inch image at a focal distance of 145 feet. The instrument most
the staff of astronomers and assistants at frequently employed in the study of these
the Solar Observatory is called the images is called the spectro-heliograph,
"Monastery.” It stands somewhat lower by means of which any desired portion
than the Snow telescope, at the extreme of the sun's spectrum may be isolated and end of a narrow point, and commands a examined. Within about two years the fine view of the neighboring mountains, present instruments will be replaced by a cities and the Pacific ocean.
SERGEANT-MAJOR WALLINGFORD OF ENGLAND FIRING FORTY SHOTS IN A MINUTE WITH
A HALLE AUTOMATIC RIFLE.
VIFTEEN well-aimed shots in nine fired at 200 yards, came within a circle of
seconds is the record of Ser- fifteen inches in diameter—in every case geant-Major Wallingford of he would have hit his man, had he been in
England with the new Halle au- battle. tomatic rifle. The illustrations show him It is not every marksman who can loading and firing this wonderful gun. shoot as well as Sergeant-Major WalHe, made one target of fifteen shots in lingford, but his feat thrusts before the nine seconds, and another of forty shots military world the tremendous possibiliin one minute. Every one of these shots, ties of the automatic rifle. That this
weapon is the military small-arm of the future has been the opinion of many experts, but the efficiency of the automatic rifle has not, before now, been demonstrated by such conclusive tests. Some of the advantages of the Halle over other automatic rifles are that the automatic mechanism is worked by the recoil of the gun and not by compressed gas drawn from the barrel, and that it is a short-recoil rather than a long-recoil gun. The obvious advantage of a shortrecoil is the lessening of the shock to the gun and its mechanism. Also, in a longrecoil rifle, it is necessary that the recoil be as quick as possible, so that the barrel
must be made light, which is an added Target Made at 200 YARDS IN THE TRIAL Photo
source of weakness.
The possibilities of the automatic rifle in war are limited only by its ability to stand hard service. The automatic rifle, for use in the field, must be simple in construction and as nearly like the present army rifle as possible. It must be built so that the soldier will not have to be a master mechanic to keep it in working order. Then, it must be capable of use as an ordinary gun, if the automatic arrangement be thrown out of order by rust or dirt. Its real efficiency is proportional to its certainty of actionit must work at all times and under all conditions.
The automatic rifle will be of greatest service in defensive operations. To repulse an attack upon trenches or stockades requires a perfect rain of shot, out of all proportion to the numbers of the advancing party. With the Halle rifle the cartridges may be fired at the rate of 300 a minute and at close range, where accurate marksmanship is not necessary, a blanket fire of this kind would destroy everything before it. The terrible destruction pouring from a thousand guns firing 300 shots a minute is too appalling to dwell upon.
The use of the automatic rifle by cavalry will be one of the greatest advan
FITTING THE EMERGENCY MAGAZINE,
tages of its adoption by the army. Cavalry charges in the midst of battle are of little avail against modern artillery and rifle fire. But a charging battalion armed with automatic rifles would be nearly invincible. To secure better action on
horseback, the gun would be fired from will exhaust the hardiest veteran. But the side instead of from the shoulder. in actual trial with the Halle rifle 250
As an arm for scouts, sharpshooters, rounds have been fired in eight minutes pickets and spies, it would have no equal, without tiring the marksman. and the potential advantage secured by The ammunition item is one of imthe soldier knowing that his weapon is portance, but it is claimed that there is far superior to that with which his less waste with the automatic rifle than enemies are armed is worth consid- with the ordinary repeating gun. Where ering:
the marksman has nothing to do but pull An important feature of this gun is the trigger, his aim is much better than that there is comparatively little fatigue where he has to throw the bolt himself, in firing so rapidly. With the ordinary and thus get his weapon out of line. magazine gun, where the operator has In spite of the opposition which is to go through several motions and re- being raised to its adoption, it seems ceraim after each shot, the strain is tre- tain that the automatic rifle will open a mendous. A few minutes rapid firing new era in infantry warfare.
Over the Ice by Auto
By Max A. R. Brunner
N automobile sleigh which
long, 8 feet high and is driven by a 4 cylinder air cooled motor. The latter develops 12 horse power and is provided with air jackets, instead of the usual water circulating system. A blower geared to the engine shaft produces a strong artificial air-draught and effectively cools the heated parts. The engine is placed in front and drives—by means of a countershaft, sprocket-wheel and long chain—the spike-drive wheel, as shown in the picture. This wheel is spring-pressed against the ground and has abundant vertical play to overcome
unevenness of the ice or snow. The arms are of steel and have double steel contact points. Thus a most positive power is applied for driving the sleigh. Just behind the drive-wheel, the brake can be seen, consisting of a curved bar with teeth, a horizontal connecting rod and a foot lever in front of the driver. Thus the bar can be pressed against the ground. Between the floor of the sleigh and the wooden step a string with bells is stretched, at the same time completing the illusion of sleigh-riding and serving as a warning to careless pedestrians.
This auto-sleigh has some remarkable features in its operation. The transmission gear allows two speeds which rates from 10 to 35 miles an hour. With the special ice wheel in service and the ring