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Mrs. Richard King. Margaret Deland, when not writing fiction, grows jonquils in window-boxes and sells them. She is said to be an enthusiastic exponent of this method of profitable agriculture for women. Objection might be taken to it on the ground of its limited possibilities. No similar objection could be made to the enterprise managed by Mrs. Richard King. Mrs. King has a farm of 1,000,000 acres in the southern part of Texas. This means that she owns more land than there is in Rhode Island. She hasn't two United States senators, but she has more than 100,000 cattle. The local rail
road runs for about 100 miles through Makes DESERT PLACES BLOSSOM, Mrs. Annetta E. McCrea, of Chicago,
her land. And she is the actual manager
and business head of this enormous inapeake Bay. Miss Jane Morgan of Phil- dustry. Although she is now no longer adelphia, the master of the Waturus, a
a young or even a middle-aged woman, steam vessel over 200 feet long, is an- she still keeps all the details of the busiother who has passed the necessary ex- ness in her own hands. aminations for a pilot's license and who
An altogether different but equally inis allowed by law to undertake a pilot's teresting piece of real estate is that manresponsibility for the lives of passengers aged by Mrs. Theodosia B. Shepherd, at on the high seas.
Ventura, California. Mrs. Shepherd is Is agriculture technical work? It cer
known in California under the two titles tainly is if it is followed with intelligence.
of “The Female Burbank” and “The PioIn fact, there is no other occupation in
neer Seed-Grower.” She was the first which the technical side is receiving so
person to see the possibility of growing rapid a development.
seeds in California for sale in all parts The case of Mary E. Cutler, of Hol
of the United States. But she did not liston, Massachusetts, is a case in point.
stop with growing seeds. She began to With a farm which a few years ago cost
develop new varieties. She became a only a few hundred dollars, this scien- specialist in such flowers as begonia, costific woman farmer is making for her- mos, and calliopsis. The catalogue of the self an annual income of several thou
“Theodosia B. Shepherd Company" is tosands. She says that the reason for her day an enormous volume, on every page success is that she does not waste an of which there is convincing proof of inch of ground, and that, if possible, each the technical skill and commercial adroitinch is occupied for several different pur- ness of the woman manager and owner poses each year. She practices farming of the company. of the diversified kind. She grows all the ordinary crops and all the ordinary animals. She also cultivates shade trees and garden flowers for sale. She also specializes in vegetables. And, finally, she watches the markets as closely as possible for changes in values, and then changes her crops accordingly. So much skill has she shown, that she has made her "Winthrop Gardens” famous, and she is employed as a special lecturer by the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture. The two extremes among women in
RUNS A SUCCESSFUL DAIRY. agriculture are Margaret Deland and
Mrs. Scott Durand, of Lake Forest, Ill.
Mrs. Shepherd is now trying earnestly to develop an absolutely pure-white nasturtium. It is a quest in which the scientist and the mystic go hand in hand. With all her scientific attainments, Mrs. Shepherd retains a strong belief in psychical phenomena. She is sure that the state of her mind has a great deal to do with the production of new species of flowers.
"If I desire a certain kind of flower," she said once, "the forces of my concentrated will and desire unite with, and influence, the forces of the flower. Nature returns to me the thought-patterns which I keep steadily in my mind."
Dairying is a species of farm work to which scores of agricultural schools year
women who wish to devote themselves to dairying and to gardening. This school is under the auspices of the Countess of Warwick, and is located at Studley Castle. It is large and prosperous. Lady Warwick, besides managing 23,000 acres of land, besides hunting with the Warwickshire hounds, besides giving parties as an established leader of society, and besides making speeches for socialism as a member of the Social Democratic Federation, has found time to become the woman patron of agriculture in Great Britain.
Half-way between the work of the horticulturist and the work of the architect, is the field of labor developed by women like Mrs. Annetta E. McCrea. With carloads of trees, flowers, and shrubs, Mrs. McCrea goes from station to station along the right-of-way of the railroads that employ her. Each station that she touches, she changes from a cinder-set shed to a country villa surrounded by a garden. This, at any rate, is the ideal toward which she works. Lack of money and lack of interest will long prevent any complete reformation of the railway stations of America ; but the work done by artists like Mrs. McCrea is already beginning to be noticeable, and the movement will undoubtedly proceed with an increasing momentum.
It is clear that from the woman at Pittsburg, designing electric motors, to the woman at Ventura, California, developing a pure-white nasturtium, there is a range of work within which any woman of intelligence and of ambition can find a place for herself. As the president of a Western university remarked in private conversation not long ago:
“There is no longer any reason why a young woman should deny herself the pleasure of following any study that interests her, on the ground that she will never be able to put it to any practical use. A woman student who has a passion for electricity, for instance, need no longer feel that she ought to divert her attention to music in order to become proficient in something that will enable her to earn her living. To-day a woman can earn her living in electricity if she is really determined to do so. How this increased scope of commercial possibilities broadens the intellectual interests of the young women who are still at school or college, can easily be imagined. When women can do anything, then they can also think about anything and study anything, and the whole intellectual life of the nation is quickened.”
ly contribute the results of thousands of technical experiments. And the number of women who find dairying profitable is yearly increasing. Among such women may be mentioned Mrs. Scott Durand, of Lake Forest, Illinois. Her “Crab-Tree Dairy” was started not long ago on a strictly scientific basis, both in the matter of food for the animals and in the matter of cleanliness. So great has been the success of this enterprise that it was necessary last fall to move it to larger quarters.
It is, of course, in the lighter forms of agriculture that women have found their
riculture that women have found their best opportunity. In England an agricultural school has been founded solely for
The Coming Sex
By Walter Hope
UT of the 305 “gainful oc- in these trades if they can be full-fledged cupations” enumerated by mechanics. And if, as is the case, there the Census of the United were two women motormen in 1900, States, there are only eight there is no reason why there should not in which women do not be women street-car drivers in 1910 in appear. In all the other cities where horses are still used for 297, there are accredited local transportation.
representatives of “the Only four occupations, therefore, are coming sex" in numbers ranging from 2 to-day beyond the reach of women in the to 600,000.
United States. They cannot be federal The eight occupations in which women soldiers, federal sailors, federal marines, do not appear, fall into two classes: or municipal firemen. Everywhere else
In the first of these classes, the ab- they have knocked, and they have been sence of woman is due to the tyranny admitted. of man. There are no women soldiers The total number of women engaged in the United States Army. There are in "gainful occupations” in 1900 was no women sailors in the United States 5,319,397. This was an enormous adNavy. There are no women marines in vance over the number of women simthat navy. And there are no women fire- ilarly employed in 1890. If the same men in the municipal fire departments rate of progress has been maintained of American cities. All this is simply since 1900, there cannot be the slightest because women have been ruled out. doubt that at the present time there are With different regulations, there might fully six million women at work in vabe different results. In Sweden there is rious trades and occupations in the a fire department in which women are United States of America. frequently enrolled. And the fighting What this means it is impossible to done by women at the siege of Saragossa realize unless the total number of women in Spain during the Napoleonic wars, has in the United States is taken into considalways stood as a spectacular and suffi- eration. In the year 1900 there were some cient proof of feminine valor.
28,000,000 American women over ten In the remaining four of the eight years of age. Many of these women were womanless occupations in this country, of course mere children. Many of them the absence of women cannot be so read were so old as to be beyond the workily explained away. It must be simplying age. Millions of them were engaged due to feminine neglect, that at the time in the task of keeping house, of bringing of the last census there were no women up their children, of providing homes for "apprentices and helpers to roofers and the p.esent generation, and of laying the slaters," no women "helpers to brass- foundations of the character and of the workers," no women "helpers to steam- culture of the future. In other words, boiler makers,” and no women street-car they were discharging woman's "historic drivers. The next census will probably mission.” Yet, with all these deductions, repair this defect. There is no reason there were in the year 1900 more than why women should not enter these four 5,300,000 women who were engaged not trades. Already they can be found in only in spending money but in earning trades which are similar but more diffi- it; not only in managing the expenditure cult. Already there are women roofers of wealth, which is the acknowledged and slaters, women brass-workers, and function of woman, but in creating it, women steam-boiler makers. It is hard which is supposed to be the duty of man. to see why they shouldn't he "helpers”
of every five American women over ten it is observable, in a perusal of the census years of age, there was one who was statistics, that a man who wanted a new going outside of her family duties and residence might conceivably have all the who was taking part in the "gainful" work done by the women who have gone work of the working world.
into the mechanical trades. In 1900, beJust about 1,000,000 of America's 5,- sides the 100 women architects, who 300,000 “gainful” women in 1900 were come more properly under the "profesengaged in what the Census calls "agri- sions,” there were 150 women builders cultural pursuits.” Among these 1,000,- and contractors in the United States, 167 000 women agriculturists, there were women masons, 545 women carpenters, 665,791 farm laborers and 307,788 45 women plasterers, 1,759 women paint“farmers, planters, and overseers.” There ers, glaziers, and varnishers, 126 women were also 100 women lumbermen and plumbers, 241 women paper-hangers, raftsmen,and 113 women wood-choppers. and 2 women slaters and roofers. A
In the professions, women are ac- complete structure in honor of the sex cepted more as a matter of course than might be erected by these representatives they are in "agricultural pursuits.” And of its modern ingenuity and activity. among all the professions, that of teach The most notable advance made by ing is the most thoroughly feminized. women in the decade from 1890 to 1900 It is not surprising, therefore, to learn was in stenography. In 1890 there were that in the United States in 1900 there 21,270 stenographers and typewriters. were more than 325,000 teachers. It is In 1900 there were 86,118. This was an decidedly surprising, however, to wake increase of more than 300 per cent. up to the fact that there were only 6,418 The only occupations in which women actresses. It is clear that it takes about are going backward, compared with men, 1,000 teachers to make as much stir and are those in which they might be exget as much space in the newspapers aspected to go forward-namely, sewing, one stage-lady. And who would suppose tailoring, and dressmaking. There were from the relative amounts of comment fewer seamstresses, tailoresses, and made upon actresses and women clergy- dressmakers in proportion to the nummen, that the latter are more than half ber of men in these occupations in 1900 as numerous as the former? Yet there than there were in 1890. Work with the were 3,405 women clergymen in the needle seems to be becoming too feminine United States in 1900, and they were for women. actively engaged in the religious life of On the whole, however, the increase many different denominations.
in the number of women in the trade Engineering is properly regarded as and industry of America is not only satthe most difficult profession for women. isfactory but more than satisfactory. It The engineer has to do rough work in is alarming. While in 1900 there were educating himself, and he has to do still 5,300,000 such women, in 1890 there rougher work when he begins to practice. were only about 4,000,000. The number Nevertheless, in 1900 there were 40 of women at work increased 33 per cent women civil engineers, 30 women me- during the decade from 1890 to 1900. chanical and electrical engineers, and In that same period the total number of three women mining engineers.
women in the United States increased Incidentally, there were 14 women only 22 per cent. In other words the veterinary surgeons.
number of women at work increased half And women should not forget that again as fast as the total number of all modern "library science,” with its in- the women in the country. Roughly tricate technique, is providing them with speaking, it may be said that while in a new and expanding field of profes- 1890 one women in every six went to sional effort. In 1900 there were 3,125 work, in 1900 the proportion had inwomen librarians in the United States. creased to one in every five.
There were also 2,086 women saloon- It is not surprising, therefore, that keepers, and 440 women bar-tenders. President Roosevelt, in his last message
Coming down from the professions of to Congress, strongly recommended a nacataloguing books and of mixing drinks, ţional investigation into the moral and