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One of the richest women of Europe. Granddaughter of the founder of the great Krupp gunworks. Her

engagement to G. von Bohlen was recently announced

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ammunition which they used was manu- mous for the war material with which factured by the same company. The this family has supplied the world. The heavy ordnance on the Japanese battle- magnitude of the Krupp industries is ships and cruisers came partly from the such that one has no conception of them same source which supplied the Czar's until he visits the several communities, cannon. The fastest of Russia's cruiser which are large cities in population, most

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fleet—the famous Askold, which showed of whose residents depend entirely upon its heels to the Japanese flyers after a this remarkable firm for a livelihood. sortie from Port Arthur and a running Since Peter Friedrich Krupp founded fight, and, although in badly crippled the works which bear his name in 1810, condition, managed to elude its pursuers erecting the first smelting furnace for and escape to Shanghai—was also made the manufacture of cast steel a year later, in Germany at the Krupp yards. The the enterprise has expanded until it repname of Krupp has become world-fa- resents to-day four steel and iron works, one of the largest shipyards in Germany, finished under the supervision of Alfred three groups of coal mines, and sixteen Krupp in 1847. The use of cast steel blast furnaces, taking the product from in small-arm barrels was first tried here no less than 667 ore workings in Ger- with success in 1843. With 1853 came many, in addition to a large tonnage an- the manufacture of weldless steel tires, nually secured from the workings in which attracted so much attention from northern Spain. All told, no less than engineers. The first 12-pound cannon 150,000 persons depend upon the several was finished in 1854 at Essen, while in industries for support. Of these, 40,000 1862 began the casting of Bessemer steel are skilled and unskilled workmen, and in Germany. To-day the Essen works about 4,000 are employed in various have facilities for manufacturing ordclerical capacities. The Essen plant is nance of every type, ranging from the by far the largest, requiring about 25,- 1-pounder rapid-fire gun used in the 000 hands. At present, 3,000 are em- fighting top of the warship to the seaployed at the Gruson division, about 4, coast-defense gun and the main battery 500 in the shipyard, while the coal and of the first-class battleship. The coastiron mines require a force of 6,000, and defense turrets are finished at the Gruson the blast furnaces and other works about works; but armor-plate of every type 5,500. The army of employees, with their for naval use is completed at Essen, families, constitute important communi- as well as hardened steel castings for ties in themselves, those employed at Es- war-vessel protection. As an indication sen residing in eight suburban colonies. of the capacity of the Essen plant alone, Another community is peopled entirely it may be stated that up to the present by the miners, while the shipyard work time, it has completed about 45,000 guns ers also form a separate town in them- for naval and coast defense, in ordnance selves.

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for siege and fortress purposes, and in The Essen works have been so prom- batteries of field and mountain artillery, inently identified with the progress made including the necessary gun-carriages in the construction of ordnance, ammuni- and other accessories. Here are also tion, and armor-plate, that it is interest- manufactured shells for piercing heavy ing to outline their history briefly. Sev- armor-plate, as well as ordinary steel eral of the shops which were built at Es- projectiles, mining shells, and shrapnel; sen in 1818 are still standing and being and even a large quantity of cast-iron utilized for various purposes. The first shells and cast-iron shot are turned out cast steel was converted into a cannon at yearly, in addition to fuses and ammunithis plant, when a 3-pounder gun was tion. The Gruson plant may be termed


In central background are four inclosed docks for constructing battleships.

supplementary to that at Essen in the both overground and underground drainproduction of war material. The cele- ing machinery and a hydraulic air-combrated turret takes its name from the pressor for operating ventilators, while founder of these works, which are lo- a separating and washing floor is also cated at Buckau. The turrets are com- installed, which has a capacity of 100 posed of chilled cast iron, and are utilized tons hourly. The workings near Boprincipally for the protection of coast- chum contain thirty veins, with a total defense guns. Another form of turret thickness of 112 feet. They are much manufactured at Gruson is provided with more extensive than the pits at Essen, a steel top and a glacis armor of chilled and furnish most of the total output of cast iron or cast steel. Armor for the the Krupp mines, which represent nearly protection of observation stations is an- 1,500,000 tons yearly. They are also proother product. The Buckau division is vided with surface and underground equipped with machinery for manufact- draining machinery, as well as hydraulic uring small cannon, as well as carriages air-compressors which have a capacity of and ammunition for them.

10,000 cubic feet hourly, in addition to Both Friedrich Krupp and his son Al- four ventilators and four separation fred believed that a successful industry plants, treating 200 tons an hour. In should own not only the facilities for connection with the mines are sets of production, but the sources of raw ma- coke ovens having a total daily output terial forming the base; and this is why of 700 tons. These are of the vertical the coal and ore mines in connection with type, served from above, but are not prothe blast furnace form such a notable vided with apparatus for securing byadjunct of the enterprise under consid- products, such as is installed in most eration. One of the principal coal mines of the modern ovens of the United is located practically on the site of the States. The various groups of iron-ore Essen works, the other two being situ- deposits produce annually about 520,000 ated near Bochum. In all, they com- tons. They include, as stated, 667 difprise seven working pits, of which three ferent workings producing hematite and are at Essen. The former have a max- red ore as well as manganese. The imum depth of 1,700 feet; and at pres- Krupp interest in the Spanish mines is ent no less than ten veins of coal are held under the title of the Orconera Iron being worked on two levels, the veins Ore Company, and a line of steamships varying from 27/2 to 6 feet in thickness. owned by the Krupps is used in the Most of the coal is secured by hand min- transportation of the ore to Germany. ing; but the works are equipped with The blast-furnace capacity is not so

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