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MAKING STEEL AT THE ESSEN WORKS BY THE CRUCIBLE METHOD.

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ONE OF THE 5,000-TON PRESSES FORGING AN INGOT FOR A GUN.

ducing from 200 to 225 tons every 24 of the 1,900 tons daily, which is the averhours. The furnaces are provided with age output of this division of the Krupp steam hoists and four Cowper heaters. industries. They include four furnaces An interesting feature in connection with at the Mulhofen works, three at the Herthe plant is the service of the ore, a manns works, and four at the Johannes series of Brown hoist conveyors, elec- works, but none are of modern type. trically driven, being used for trans- The great Germania shipyard at Kiel ferring the ore from shipyard to the is relied upon by the Kaiser to create the plant. The blowing engines are of the greater part of the navy upon which he vertical-compound type, furnishing 32,- has decided. By the provisions of the 000 cubic feet of air per minute; but the German naval law of 1900, he will have

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a force of no less than 38 battleships, 65 sel-building were large enough to lay cruisers, and a flotilla of torpedo-boats down first-class battleships. Two more, and torpedo-boat destroyers to represent however, have already been added, and his sea power in 1920. This is one rea- three additional ones will be constructed son why the Germania yard was acquired in the near future. These have a length in 1902 by the Krupps. While one of the varying from 377 to 836 feet, a width of most extensive in the world, it is being from 85 to 100 feet; and four are enenlarged to more than double its original closed, so that marine work can continue capacity; and its facilities for building throughout the year in spite of the not only warships of every type, but mer- weather. When the hull of a vessel is chantmen, are to-day probably unequaled completed, it is necessary only to let the on the globe. The old yard comprised water into the slip by removing the ponover 300 acres, and its five slips for ves- toon at the sea end, thus avoiding the ne

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cessity for launching. With the ten slips Wilhelm, Nymphe, and Amazone, were in operation, a small fleet of battleships constructed in these slips. One of the and cruisers, in addition to torpedo- most notable pieces of work was the boats, can be constructed at the same Askold, to which we have already retine, for one of them is especially de ferred. This cruiser which is of 6,000 signed for the smaller craft, being large tons, was built not only for speed, but enough to allow five to be put under way to carry unusually powerful batteries. at the same time. This yard has already After being completed, she attained a turned out some of the most noted war speed of no less than 24 knots an hour craft in the world. With all of its new with her triple screws, one knot more machinery in operation, an army of 7,- than the required rate, developing 19,000 men will be required in spite of the 999 horse-power. Among the additions immense number of labor-saying tools to Germany's merchantmen built at the

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SHOP FOR TURNING OUT GUN-CARRIAGES AND LOCOMOTIVE WHEELS.

which are used. A further idea of its Germania yard, are the Lloyd ships Bonn magnitude can be gained, when it is and Halle; also the famous Kaiser Wil-. stated that the yard occupies a frontage helm der Grosse, which has made such of over half a mile on Kiel harbor. a record in trans-Atlantic service.

Reference has already been made to While the Essen works may be called the importance of this plant in the con- the pioneer of the group of Krupp instruction of war vessels. Among the dustries, it is interesting to note that they notable craft completed are four battle- lave kept pace with the improvements ships for the German Navy, including perfected in equipment for producing the Worth (10,000 tons), the Zahringen metal in its various forms. The crucible, (11,800 tons), and another ship recently open-hearth, and Bessemer sections are placed in commission of 13,000 tons. A equipped with the most modern machinnumber of the principal naval vessels, ery for these purposes. The first-named such as the battleship Baden, have been plant is capable of casting single pieces rebuilt. Recent additions to the fleet of from the greatest number of crucibles of German cruisers, such as the Princess any steel works in the world, turning

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plate which is finished in this department, necessitates unusually powerful drills and lathes. These are operated by steam power; also by individual electric motors, directly connected or belted to the mechanism. The turrets are finished by what may be termed double tools, the cutting parts of which are fastened to cylinders traveling on a horizon

tal, serrated platform Typ.Cal WorkinGMAN's Home in a Krupp City.

suspended above. The turret is bolted to a re

volving framework, out ingots weighing 85 tons and over. which can be adjusted to the cutting tool The furnaces are, served with power as desired. Probably the most powerful cranes, electricity being principally em- horizontal lathes in the world are used at ployed as the motive power. The ma- the Essen shops. chinery for converting the raw material One of the most interesting features into armor and other plates, includes nò of the Krupp projects is the provision less than 22 trains of rolls, steam ham- made for employees. It may be said mers, whose "tups” weigh from 100 that the workers who are on the paypounds to 55 tons; and 2 forging presses rolls of the concern form a class by for treating armor-plate, representing a themselves in the Empire. They are so power of 5,000 and 2.000 tons respective- largely engaged in the manufacture of ly. They are operated by the hydraulic war material and upon war vessels, that system, as well as 2 bending presses, each they feel that they are in the service of of 7,000 tons. These presses are similar the Empire as much as if they were solin their principal features to the ones in diers or enlisted in the German Navy. service in Bethlehem (Pa.) and the Car- As already stated, the majority reside in negie works in the United States. For communities by themselves. Most of the transferring the ingots, armor-plates, and houses and other buildings in these were other heavy machinery, electrical overhead traveiing cranes are principally used, supported by the framework of the buildings where they are installed and serving all parts of each building. The larger ones have a maximum lifting capacity of 165 tons.

The machine tools emploved form one of the most interesting portions of the mechanical installations, as might be imagined. The large

HOME FOR INVALID WORKMEN. quantity of heavy armor

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Maintained by the Krupps.

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