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into stove polish or into the fillings of has she saved from death by drowning in lead-pencils. The same principle is fol- the waters off the Rhode Island coast. lowed in the study of birds, fish, cows, Her boat, the Rescue, was exhibited at horses, and other animals. How stimu- the World's Fair in Chicago. Medals lating this method is, may be seen from have been granted her by the Humane the fact that the boys who frequent the Society of Massachusetts and by the museum are not satisfied with a book- Life-Saving Benevolent Society of New knowledge of electricity, but have rigged York. Her career is one in which physiup their own wireless apparatus, with cal courage and moral self-sacrifice have which they have been able to communi- united to set a standard approachable by cate with ships on Long Island Sound. few in either sex.
At the beginning of this article, were What shall be said to these illustrations mentioned a woman diver and a woman of feminine courage, of feminine adroitlighthouse keeper. There is a third ness, of feminine power of innovation ? woman who, in a way, combines the It makes no difference what is said. If duties of the other two. This woman is women had waited for encouragement Ida Lewis Wilson, more familiar on the from the world, they would still all of lips and in the hearts of the American them be sitting by the fireside spinning. people as simply “Ida Lewis." Ida If advice were capable of having any Lewis, no longer in the prime of her effect on them, they would never have strength, can still be found at the Lime gone bevond their front doors. So all Rock lighthouse at Newport, in Rhode that can be done is simply and humbly to Island. Her father was the keeper of that record the acts which, without encourlighthouse, and Ida Lewis learned at an agement and against advice, they have so early age how to row, how to swim, and far performed, and which in the future how to dive. More than twenty persons they give great promise of bettering,
Bread-Making by Machinery
By Carol A. Stewart
ARD on the fate of the one of the largest bakeries in New York family soapmaking, the places the number of loaves of bread household spinning, and baked daily in that city at a million and other domestic arts of a a-half. This does not include the rolls, few years ago, which no buns, and biscuits also baked. The num
longer occupy an import- ber of bakeries is given as 2,500, and in ant place in the curriculum of home edu- this are not included many of the small cation, the making of home-made bread East-Side concerns. The consumption of is now threatened with at least partial flour is about 10,000 sacks daily; and extinction. As machinery encroaches 10,000 men—who include bakers, asmore and more upon hand processes, ar- sistants, drivers, etc.—are engaged in the ticles of common consumption that once occupation of making and selling the were fabricated in the home are bought product. In one of the large bread facready-made of the dealer. And the tories, 225 men are employed daily. Of ready-made product generally is cheaper, this number, 88 are bakers. These work and, if honestly made, better than would in two shifts, of nine hours each. The be produced in smaller quantities and by delivery wagons begin to leave the bakless scientific methods.
ery with their loads at midnight, and by Not only has machine-made bread sup- 5 A. M. the last is sent away. planted the article made by hand, in the large cities, but it is now rapidly invading the country as well. More than four million pounds of bread are produced in the city of New York every day, and of this quantity many thousand pounds are consumed in farm houses on Long Island, up the Hudson, and in New Jersey. This bread is generally better and can be sold more cheaply than that mixed and moulded by hand and baked in the oldfashioned ovens.
Making bread for four millions of persons—as New York does—is an industry of considerable magnitude. Until very recently it was an industry which was carried on by practically the same methods as had obtained since bread was first made. The preparation of no other manufactured food had undergone so little change. Even now in the so-called foreign quarters of New York, Chicago, and other large cities, but little difference is noted in the bread-making habits of the present from those of the venerable past. An estimate by a man at the head of HE IS AN IMPORTANT PERSONAGE - THE HEAD BAKER. is no longer necessary to devote hours to kneading the dough and shaping it into loaves. The flourmixer, the kneading machine, and the doughdivider will do in a quarter of the time the work for which formerly many men were needed.
The varieties of bread which may be made by the same machinery, and the shapes of the loaves, are limited only by the wish of the baker. In the large factories, three
distinct kinds are made Flour Sacks ABOUT TO BE EMPTIED INTO CHUTES.
-rye, “home-made," and First stage in modern bread-making.
Vienna—but these are in
many different styles. In New York especially have great ad- No small portion of the baker's time is vances taken place in the art of bread- devoted to the making of rolls, of which, making. The bread of Paris has been also, there are many styles. noted for centuries for its excellence, Americans of English or Irish descent but “French bread" is now made in New are partial to wheat bread and use but York which can compare favorably with little rye, while the German and Dutch any production of the French capital, Americans eat rye almost exclusively. and it is only one of more than a score When the "machine" baker has comof varieties of bread which New York pleted his toilet and entered the workproduces equally well.
room, his first task is the blending of the In the sanitary conditions surround flour, the object being to combine the reing bread-making, New York also has quisite proportions of proteids, fats, and made an advance. The baker no longer carbohydrates. The flour is then works in a dark, poorly ventilated cellar, but in large, airy buildings constructed specially for the purpose. He is obliged to take a daily bath in bathrooms provided in the building, and to make an entire change of clothing before he begins his work. White jackets and trousers and fresh underclothing are provided by the firm.
The old-fashioned baker would find himself completely lost in one of the great modern factories of New York, with its machinery and labor-saving devices, the use of which would be entirely novel to him. It
screened through a rotary sifter, and improved machinery than any at present only the cleanest and finest sent through in active use has been devised, whereby the pipe to the dough-mixer. Under old it is expected that the average production conditions it was placed in a large re- from a barrel of flour will be from 350 ceptacle, and several bakers would knead to 352 pounds of bread. This has actthe dough. One of the most tedious feat- ually been accomplished, and is explained
ures of bread-making is thus eliminated, as being due to the peculiar kneading and it is with respect to the dough-mixer of the dough. that bread-mixing machinery has reached The dough-mixer and the kneading its highest present perfection. This mixer machine are practically one. When the produces 285 pounds of bread from a bar- screened, or refined, flour reaches the rel (196 pounds) of flour. Pure oxygen- bins which supply the former, it is conated air is blasted into the mixer, aërat- veyed to the latter through a pipe. A ing the dough, and producing what is tank is located above each machine, in termed self-raising bread Even more which hot and cold water are mingled
ing made, caraway seed is sometimes in- fermented mass is dropped into the troduced.
oven rooms through The mixing machines-of which there chutes. The wheat dough and the rye are many different makes—are in the dough are transferred by different pasmain all the same. An iron vessel sages. mounted so as to swing, is the essential The actual process of baking the bread part. In this vessel double dasher, or is, of course, accomplished by essentially mixer, is mounted ; and is turned by the same means as ever, only that the oldmeans of gearing driven by a belt. When style oven, heated with wood, has disthe dough has been thoroughly mixed, appeared. In the old oven, the fire was it is automatically removed from the ma- raked out when the required temperature chine and allowed to "raise," or ferment, had been reached, and the bread baked in a steam-heated room. A machine has in the slowly cooling interior. The modbeen devised, and is in use in a number ern oven is heated continually and evenof bread factories, to form the dough ly. The cut dough is placed on large steel into loaves, but opinions among bakers slabs, or tables, capable of holding from differ as to its merits in its present stage. 200 to 300 loaves, which
are then In the majority of places, the shaping wheeled on a track to the front of the and weighing are done by hand. A quick ovens. Each oven is lighted by eleceye and a skill obtained only through tricity, and will accommodate as a rule