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out of which butter-crocks are made, and and manual skill in wood-engraving. She the coloring is exactly the same kind of is the wife of Professor J. H. Comstock coloring that is used for marking butter- of Cornell University, also a graduate of crocks with their market price. The that institution. She was interested in technical skill is all in Mrs. Frackleton's her husband's work from the st, and eye and hand.

made drawings for his publications when Mary E. Tillinghast, of New York, is he was Entomologist to the United States another woman whose eye and hand are Department of Agriculture. Later, she suited to the

took up woodmaking of

engraving for beautiful

the purpose of things out of

illustrating his refractory ma

books; and six teria 1. Her

hundred of her stained glass

engravings apwindows in

pear in “ComAllegheny

stock's ManUniversity; in

ual," and many St. Vincent's

more in "InHo s pital, in

sect Life," a Grace Church,

volume written New York,

by Professor and in many

Comstock for other places,

field work. Beare we 11

cause of her known. She

proficiency in helped La

reproducing Farge to dec

texture and orate Corne

color in her lius Vander

engravings, she bilt's town res

was elected to idence. Acting

the Society of under her own

American orders, she

Wood - Endecorated the

gravers, and Savoy Restau

her work has rant in New

been exhibited York, taking

with that of charge of a

the society in gang of sixty

all the recent workmen. Her


America and cially worthy Mary E. Tillinghast, of New York.

Europe. She of notice, be

received a cause, in decorating residences and res- bronze medal for her engravings at the taurants, she marks out a line of work Pan-American Exposition. She was along which women of courage and en- elected to Sigma Xi because of her scienergy can gratify their artistic ambitions tific drawings. while at the same time earning more In recent years Mrs. Comstock has money than art usually distributes among given her time to the University extenits followers.

sion work in Nature Study, conducted Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock, of

Comstock, of by Cornell University, and has lectured Ithaca, N. Y., Secretary of the Nature on Nature Study in the University of Club of America, is an illustrious exam- California and Leland Stanford, Jr. Uniple of the versatility of which women are versity.. She is the editor of the leaflets sometimes capable, combining high scien- of the Home Nature-Study Course, a tific attainments with exquisite artistic correspondence course for the teachers of New York State, and has thus come in direct contact with many thousands of students. She is joint author with her husband of “How to know the Butterflies," and is author of "How to keep Bees” and “Ways of the Six-Footed.”



Katherine Burrowes, of Detroit, is a woman who, by striking out into new paths, has shown the courage of the innovator, and has reaped the reward that comes, sometimes, to a man or woman of that temperament. Mrs. Burrowes is a music teacher. And she teaches little children. Nothing could sound more conventional, more tedious. But instead of making the little fingers go up and down, up and down, in the same places,

Is an EXPERT NATURALIST AND WOOD-ENGRAVER, till a piano lesson ranks with going to bed in the child's list of pleasures, Mrs.

Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock, of Ithaca, N Y. Burrowes has devised a fascinating series of mechanical games, in which, by learning definitions of things which they means of balls, pictures, and other pieces never had seen and never could underof apparatus, the child acquires not only stand. The Children's Museum is filled a knowledge of music but an appreciation with the things which are mentioned in and love for it. These inventions of Mrs. the books read by the children in school, Burrowes are real inventions. They are and which, on going to the Museum, they protected by more than twenty copyrights can study and appreciate for themselves. and by five or six patents. Her school The child learns in his geography that a is a contribution to pedagogy as well as certain State produces graphite. How to music.

much this means to him, all adults who Comparable to Mrs. Burrowes' school have read the same statement at the same as a pedagogical achievement, is the age can readily imagine. But the BrookChildren's Museum of Brooklyn, which is lyn child, going to the Children's Musealso under the direction of a woman, um, sees specimens of graphite in their Anna B. Gallup. This museum shows original shape and color, and then sees how far education has gone beyond the small reproductions of the stages by period when children spent their time which these pieces are finally transmuted

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At left, window in First Presbyterian Church, Yonkers, N Y.; in center, memorial window in St. Peter's

Church, Bayshore, L. I.; at right, the Gould window.

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into stove polish or into the fillings of has she saved from death by drowning in lead-pencils. The same principle is fol- the waters off the Rhode Island coast. lowed in the study of birds, fish, cows, Her boat, the Rescue, was exhibited at horses, and other animals. How stimu- the World's Fair in Chicago. Medals lating this method is, may be seen from have been granted her by the Humane the fact that the boys who frequent the Society of Massachusetts and by the museum are not satisfied with a book- Life-Saving Benevolent Society of New knowledge of electricity, but have rigged York. Her career is one in which physiup their own wireless apparatus, with cal courage and moral self-sacrifice have which they have been able to communi- united to set a standard approachable by cate with ships on Long Island Sound. few in either sex.

At the beginning of this article, were What shall be said to these illustrations mentioned a woman diver and a woman of feminine courage, of feminine adroitlighthouse keeper.

There is a third ness, of feminine power of innovation ? woman who, in a way, combines the It makes no difference what is said. If duties of the other two. This woman is women had waited for encouragement Ida Lewis Wilson, more familiar on the from the world, they would still all of lips and in the hearts of the American them be sitting by the fireside spinning. people as simply "Ida Lewis.” Ida If advice were capable of having any Lewis, no longer in the prime of her effect on them, they would never have strength, can still be found at the Lime gone beyond their front doors. So all Rock lighthouse at Newport, in Rhode that can be done is simply and humbly to Island. Her father was the keeper of that record the acts which, without encourlighthouse, and Ida Lewis learned at an agement and against advice, they have so early age how to row, how to swim, and far performed, and which in the future how to dive. More than twenty persons they give great promise of bettering,

Bread-Making by Machinery

By Carol A. Stewart


ARD on the fate of the one of the largest bakeries in New York family soapmaking, the places the number of loaves of bread household spinning, and baked daily in that city at a million and other domestic arts of a a-half. This does not include the rolls, few years ago, which no buns, and biscuits also baked. The num

longer occupy an import- ber of bakeries is given as 2,500, and in ant place in the curriculum of home edu- this are not included many of the small cation, the making of home-made bread East-Side concerns. The consumption of is now threatened with at least partial flour is about 10,000 sacks daily; and extinction. As machinery encroaches 10,000 men—who include bakers, asmore and more upon hand processes, ar- sistants, drivers, etc.—are engaged in the ticles of common consumption that once occupation of making and selling the were fabricated in the home are bought product. In one of the large bread facready-made of the dealer. And the tories, 225 men are employed daily. Of ready-made product generally is cheaper, this number, 88 are bakers. These work and, if honestly made, better than would in two shifts, of nine hours each. The be produced in smaller quantities and by delivery wagons begin to leave the bakless scientific methods.

ery with their loads at midnight, and by Not only has machine-made bread sup- 5 a. M. the last is sent away. planted the article made by hand, in the large cities, but it is now rapidly invading the country as well. More than four million pounds of bread are produced in the city of New York every day, and of this quantity many thousand pounds are consumed in farm houses on Long Island, up the Hudson, and in New Jersey. This bread is generally better and can be sold more cheaply than that mixed and moulded by hand and baked in the oldfashioned ovens.

Making bread for four millions of persons--as New York does—is an industry of considerable magnitude. Until very recently it was an industry which was carried on by practically the same methods as had obtained since bread was first made. The preparation of no other manufactured food had undergone so little change. Even now in the so-called foreign quarters of New York, Chicago, and other large cities, but little difference is noted in the bread-making habits of the present from those of the venerable past. An estimate by a man at the head of




is no longer necessary to devote hours to kneading the dough and shaping it into loaves. The flourmixer, the kneading machine, and the doughdivider will do in a quarter of the time the work for which formerly many men were needed.

The varieties of bread which may be made by the same machinery, and the shapes of the loaves, are limited only by the wish of the baker. In the large factories, three

distinct kinds are made Flour SACKS ABOUT TO BE EMPTIED INTO CHUTES.

-rye, "home-made," and First stage in modern bread-making.

Vienna—but these are in

many different styles. In New York especially have great ad- No small portion of the baker's time is vances taken place in the art of bread- devoted to the making of rolls, of which, making. The bread of Paris has been also, there are many styles. noted for centuries for its excellence, Americans of English or Irish descent but “French bread" is now made in New are partial to wheat bread and use but York which can compare favorably with little rye, while the German and Dutch any production of the French capital, Americans eat rye almost exclusively. and it is only one of more than a score When the "machine” baker has comof varieties of bread which New York pleted his toilet and entered the workproduces equally well.

room, his first task is the blending of the In the sanitary conditions surround- flour, the object being to combine the reing bread-making, New York also has quisite proportions of proteids, fats, and made an advance. The baker no longer carbohydrates. The flour is then works in a dark, poorly ventilated cellar, but in large, airy buildings constructed specially for the purpose.

He is obliged to take a daily bath in bathrooms provided in the building, and

to make an entire change of clothing before he begins his work. White jackets and trousers and fresh underclothing are provided by the firm.

The old-fashioned baker would find himself completely lost in one of the great modern factories of New York, with its machinery and labor-saving devices, the use of which would be entirely novel to him. It



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