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screened through a rotary sifter, and improved machinery than any at present only the cleanest and finest sent through in active use has been devised, whereby the pipe to the dough-mixer. Under old it is expected that the average production conditions it was placed in a large re- from a barrel of flour will be from 350 ceptacle, and several bakers would knead to 352 pounds of bread. This has actthe dough. One of the most tedious feat- ually been accomplished, and is explained

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ures of bread-making is thus eliminated, as being due to the peculiar kneading and it is with respect to the dough-mixer of the dough. that bread-mixing machinery has reached The dough-mixer and the kneading its highest present perfection. This mixer machine are practically one. When the produces 285 pounds of bread from a bar- screened, or refined, four reaches the rel (196 pounds) of flour. Pure oxygen- bins which supply the former, it is conated air is blasted into the mixer, aërat- veyed to the latter through a pipe. A ing the dough, and producing what is tank is located above each machine, in termed self-raising bread Even more

which hot and cold water are mingled until a temperature of 90° Fahrenheit is long practice, are necessary to cut and attained. In winter, 95° is preferable. Each weigh the dough with the speed required. mixing machine is then filled with 60 gal- Transferring the dough from room to lons of milk and water, 840 pounds of room and from table to table, is done alflour, 15 pounds of salt, and the amount most entirely by machinery, the hands of of yeast necessary in the opinion of the the bakers scarcely ever coming in conbaker in charge. When rye bread is be- tact with it. From the mixing room, the

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SHAPING THE LOAVES. In the modern factory, this is the only part of the process of bread-making that is done by hand.

ing made, caraway seed is sometimes in- fermented mass is dropped into the troduced.

moulding and oven rooms through The mixing machines-of which there chutes. The wheat dough and the rye are many different makes—are in the dough are transferred by different pasmain all the same. An iron vessel sages. mounted so as to swing, is the essential The actual process of baking the bread part. In this vessel a double dasher, or is, of course, accomplished by essentially mixer, is mounted; and is turned by the same means as ever, only that the oldmeans of gearing driven by a belt. When style oven, heated with wood, has disthe dough has been thoroughly mixed, appeared. In the old oven, the fire was it is automatically removed from the ma- raked out when the required temperature chine and allowed to "raise," or ferment, had been reached, and the bread baked in a steam-heated room. A machine has in the slowly cooling interior. The modbeen devised, and is in use in a number ern oven is heated continually and evenof bread factories, to form the dough ly. The cut dough is placed on large steel into loaves, but opinions among bakers slabs, or tables, capable of holding from differ as to its merits in its present stage. 200 to 300 loaves, which are then In the majority of places, the shaping wheeled on a track to the front of the and weighing are done by hand. A quick ovens. Each oven is lighted by eleceye and a skill obtained only through tricity, and will accommodate as a rule two slabs at a time. The bread takes from fifteen to twenty minutes to bake. Four men are assigned to each oven, and they are kept busy operating the slabs, seeing that the bread bakes evenly, and removing the loaves to the cooling racks. Such a thing as burnt bread is unknown in the bread factory.


The cooling racks are formed of wire shelves so constructed as to permit the cool air to circulate between the loaves. This is as essential as any other detail in breadmaking. Were they placed at once in a basket or piled close formity. Its ingredients are always the together they would flatten out and be same, the dough is allowed to rise at a unfit for use.

constant temperature, and perfect saniThe result of all these devices for tary conditions are maintained. saving labor, and the utilization of hy- Though the rise of the bread factory gienic knowledge, is that “mother's has been so rapid, the day of the small home-made bread"-pretty legend from city baker is not yet ended, however. All the past—is far excelled by the product through the crowded East Side of New of the modern bread factory. One great

One great York, and on the West Side, in the secmerit of the latter is its absolute uni- tions inhabited by the foreign element,


Tray contains 168 loaves.

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where hours of labor count for nothing five hours later they return, some bringprovided the employer is one's self, the ing small boys to carry the great loaves dingy cellar bakeries still flourish. There home on their backs. the men work from twelve to fourteen Bread making is an important event hours a day, and the centuries-old meth- in the Jewish section, where bread comes ods remain unchanged.

under the dietary laws of the Jewish reVery fantastic in shape is some of the ligion to the extent that if to be eaten product of the cellar bakeries. In size, with meat it must contain no milk nor



the loaves range from the "cottage,” like fats obtained from milk. On a Friday, little round pound-cakes, to loaves made or the second day before any great holiin circles almost as large as a child's day, space to bake a loaf of bread is hard hoop.

to find in a Jewish bakery. There the A great deal of the bread baked in the biggest loaves in all the city are turned cellar bakeries has been made at home out. Ten, and sometimes twenty, pounds by the industrious housewife, who simply of flour will have been set to rise by the pays the baker his price for baking it in Jewish matron in a pan as big as a child's his oven. At a regular hour every day, bathtub. There is no shortening in it, all of this class of patrons form in two but usually six or more eggs and perlines behind the baker, their immense haps olive oil. Every loaf contains a pans of dough poised on their heads and slip of paper with the name and address covered with table-cloths. At a signal, of the owner carefully jammed into the the pan of the first woman in line is in- dough. It costs twenty-five cents to bake verted on to the bread paddle and deftly one of these masterpieces of braided thrust by the baker to the rear of the bread, and hundreds of family loaves oven. The others follow as quickly as are baked in this manner in hundreds the women can empty them. Four or of different shops.

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ERY beautiful are neck- earthenware pitchers and vases of quaint
laces of hammered gold shape, glowing with deep under-glazes, ,
and silver, set with semi- and each a unique specimen ; holding the
precious stones; dear to place of honor on the bookshelves of the
the eye of the artistic bibliomaniac, are rare first-editions, newly

housewife are bowls and bound in richest morocco, on which the
candlesticks of brass and copper, artist-bookbinder has lavished all the re-
n:oulded and carved in antique forms; sources of her art.
choicest among household treasures are All these are the products of the Arts



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