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knowledge can be obtained. Then she must have an acquainance with the practical side of working gold and silver and mounting gems and semi-precious stones. This, in almost every case, must be acquired by actual trial without the aid of an instructor. With a little lamp and blowpipe, a couple of hammers, some files, and a few simple and inexpensive tools-adding, perhaps, a small forge and vise—many women have persevered with their trials until they have attained a degree of skill which entitles them to rank as experts. And the fact that conditions have required such personal experiments is doubtless responsible for the great variety and strong individuality displayed in the work of the women jewelry makers.
Among these women, Mrs. Madeline Yale Wynne is prominent. Artistic in every way, Mrs. Wynne turns out from her workshop in the upper story of her
house in Chicago, most gorgeous and WROUGHT IN GOLD, CYPRIAN Glass, and Carved PEARL.
magnificent necklaces and other articles The work of Miss Jessie Preston, of Chicago,
of personal adornment, utilizing a great and Crafts movement; and, in the United number of semi-precious stones, as well States, at least, woman has been its as the recognized gems. She is skilled, prophet and its leading exponent. In too, in the use of enamels, and she reevery handicraft in which manual skill and dexterity must needs be wedded to artistic taste, the feminine worker has displayed an aptitude which amounts almost to supremacy.
In every city of consequence, there are women workers in the precious metals, women candlestick and bowl makers, women potters and women bookbinders, whose product commands a higher price than the stuff sold in the shops, and who are making both a financial and an artistic success.
First of all, a woman who would make the new art jewelry must have a knowledge of design. There are many
TULIP AND LILY DESIGNS, CANDELABRA AND LAMP. schools where such a
somewhere of the beautiful effects pro- and the fullness of their decorations. duced by the Egyptians by treating cop- Others are elaborately carved with great per with various acids, and she de- skill. termined to regain, if possible, that lost Cleveland, Ohio, has one of the best art. After long experimenting, she suc- metal workers in this country. Miss ceeded in getting many of the most re- Jane Carson opened a studio there a few markable effects. A visit to her studio years ago, but it was not long before her will show many kinds of handsome neck- work received recognition from the best laces—such as baroque pearls inter- art and craft workers in the country. She spersed with diamonds, abalone shells does not limit herself to the making of set in gold cups, matrix set with pearls, jewelry, but models table services and and Cyprian glass decorated with pearls jewel-caskets. She has a happy way of carved as swans.
combining odd designs and unique stones, Miss Jessie Preston is another young and is wonderfully successful in the art woman who is noted as a metal worker. of enameling. She not only works beautiful jewelry, Boston and the surrounding country but also turns out handsome candlesticks has several successful metal workers, and lamps. They are widely admired none better known than Miss Knight of for their unique designs. She goes to Wellesley Heights. She began designnature for these designs, using grasses ing for an Eastern house, when an art and wild flowers possessed of beautiful lover of Boston became interested in her shapes, which she copies directly or mod- work, started a coöperative society, and soon she and her associates worked out many beautiful colors and decorations, such as the tiger eye and the cerulean blue. By 1887 the pottery had become selfsupporting, and Mrs. Storer turned over the work to Mr. Taylor, a talented craft worker. The Rookwood is a large pottery, but this same work may be carried on at home with a few simple tools.
Pottery is made in several ways, such as modeling, turning on the wheel, and casting in a mould. Beginners usually model their pottery because it gives them skill in using the material and increases their knowledge of form. The simplest way is to take a lump of clay and model the work. Upon this they build the sides by coiling the clay and pressing the coils together with the fingers, remembering to keep a uniform shape and thickness. Before they have made many pieces, they discover that if the clay is not well worked in modeling it breaks in the firing. The decorations may be very simple or complex. A very simple and artistic effect is obtained by in
dentations made with wooden AN EXQUISITE SPECIMEN OF BOOKBINDING.
tools. The work of Miss Gertrude Stiles. Deep-Red Levant, ornamented with white flowers, small green dots, and gold tooling.
The difficulty of the task is in
creased when it comes to workplaced her at its head. Though there are ing on the potter's wheel. This method seven or eight men in the guild, she is was known to the Egyptians many the only woman worker. This shop de- thousands of years ago. It is a difficult votes itself almost entirely to the making process and is learned only after much of table services, and Miss Knight does experience. The only advantage of this all of the designing. The silver turned method over the other is in the perfect out here is exceedingly beautiful, and shape that is gained, but the worker has puts one in mind of antique Sheffield in to learn how to manipulate the machine its palmiest day.
before trying to make pottery on the One of the earliest American workers wheel. in pottery was Mrs. Maria Longworth I n moulding pottery a model is made, Storer, a pupil of Dallas White. She and a plaster of Paris cast is made from first worked in a very simple way, later it. The clay is mixed with water and founding a pottery called "Rookwood.” poured in the mould ; the plaster of Paris It did not take her long to abandon the absorbs the water and the slip hardens ordinary wares of commerce, and to and so can be turned out. Its shape is spend her time largely in making fine then perfected on the wheel and the wares after the Japanese style. Her rough places filled in. The glaze can be earliest work was limited to a shell-tinted put in before the firing, and this is called ware, pink shading to a dull white; but "under-glaze"; if put on after, it is called
"over-glaze" and must be fired a second time.
Mrs. Stewart Frackleton of Chicago was a pioneer in this art. She began to display her pottery some twenty years ago. She felt it was unnecessary to do elaborate work to make it successful. From the beginning her pottery was characterized by good designing. Occasionally she made her work more effective by moulding a bunch of fruit on the bowl or pitcher.
Mrs. Alsop Robinson of Syracuse, N. Y., is another woman whose work is recognized everywhere. Its popularity has grown until it is one of the favorite wares in the market. She studied some time at Sèvres, where she learned to produce some wonderful glazes. She has a peculiar fondness for dull colors and uses the Matt finish. Mrs. Robinson does most of the designing and the making of the ware, but her husband assists in the factory and manages the business end.
Copper Lamp. The Newcomb is one of the most in- A strong and unique design by Miss Bertha Bennett.
teresting potteries in this country. This pottery is part of the girls' college at Newcomb, La., and was started in a very simple way. The girls start by taking courses in design, and are then admitted to the pottery without tuition. The profits from their work belong to them.
There is a great step from the factory pottery to the simple workroom devised in the home, and this is what Mrs. Helen Hammill has accomplished, besides looking after her home and caring for her children. She began her work with twenty-five dollars' worth of tools. It was while making pottery that she experimented in terra-cotta, and, after working some time, succeeded in modeling small terra-cotta figures. There are many other women whose work is winning commendation, and the market for their work is sufficient proof that the making of pottery affords good opportunities to those possessing originality and patience sufficient to change shapeless clay into perfect forms by means of their hands or the potter's wheel.
Leather work is a general term used for decorating leather and binding books. Leather work is one of the oldest of the arts and crafts; but it is only during the
The women in the East are quite as deeply interested in bookbinding as are those in the West. A large room in the Art Students' League in New York is fitted up for this purpose. Many women, after studying there, finish
in England under DougMODELING A MINIATURE Bust.
las Cockerell. Mrs. Helen A. Hammill working on a bust of her youngest daughter. Decorated leather is
used for draperies, table last few years that this craft has grown covers, folios, and cases, as well as for popular in this country. Whether used book covers. This work may be carved, for the cover of a book or for house stained, burned, or embossed. The most furnishing, the method is the same.
It was Cobden Sanderson who inspired many English and American women to devote themselves to the task. The binding of a book is quite an elaborate process, and many tools are needed for this work. The term “forwarding” is used for all the steps except the lettering and decorating. The design is traced and etched on the leather of the cover. There are many ways of decorating books; the most usual is by tooling. Finishing tools are stamps of metal that have a device cut on the face.
Blend tooling is where the impression is made with hot tools, and gold tooling is where the impression of the tools is left on the leather in gold.
The foremost binder in this country is Miss Ellen Starr of Chicago. Her shop is a large studio in Hull House, well equipped with tools, examples of her work, and splendid Morris plates. Miss Starr is a pupil of the great English binder, Cobden Sanderson, and though her work is characterized by great originality, some of it shows the influence her teacher's work has exerted. Her style of decoration is marked by balance, symmetry, and definiteness, which are essentials for good bookbind
Two BAGS, PORTFOLIO FOR STATIONERY (EGYPTIAN
DESIGN), AND GLOVE CASE (GEOMETRICAL DESIGN). ing. A beautifully bound book is the
Work of Misses Rose and Minnie Dolese.