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pensive foreign emblem made. The flag green, and white. Over 100 separate of Siam, containing the big white ele- pieces form the grotesque figure, ten feet phant costs $38. Another record-breaker long. Twelve to fourteen days are taken in point of trouble to make, is the Dragon to finish this flag, which costs $51.75. flag of China. This huge mythological The cheapest foreign flag made is the monster is the prominent feature of the Moorish, which costs $21. Each ship is Chinese standard; and its fantastic scaled entitled to a new supply of flags every body, with claws and open mouth, is three years, though some flags wear out worked out on a yellow ground in blue, in less time.
even measured their positions in the sky; universe than many of the famous astronbut they only saw and recorded their ob- omers who succeeded her. servations. They could discern no plan But the study of the heavenly bodies or purpose in the bewildering galaxy of was destined to a sudden change. Aslights, other than their religious concep- tronomers were no longer content to tions—as, for instance, that the mighty count the stars in the heavens and theohunter Orion, after his death, was placed rize on their mutual relations; they must among the constellations. A geometrical know why the planets circled round the plan was first assigned to the movements sun in peculiar orbits and yet the stars apof the planets by Ptolemy of Egypt; but peared immovable. And a couple of cen
turies after the lonely abbess reasoned out the solar system, Newton discovered
the law of gravitation ; and, applying it our present theory of their motion, re- to the whole universe, mathematically versing the previously accepted theory traced its action through all the intricate that the earth was the center of the solar webb of its bearing on the planets. He system, is credited to Copernicus, who gave the result of his work to the world lived in the Middle Ages. But long be- by publishing his masterly “Principia ;" fore this famous astronomer startled the but for nearly fifty years after, mathemaworld with the hypothesis that the earth ticians refused to give credence to his circled round the sun, there lived at St. philosophy. It was left for two women Hubert's monastery, near famed Bingen- to appreciate this, one oí the greatest dison-the-Rhine, in Germany, a holy abbess coveries of all ages, and to bring it bewho upheld this then extraordinary and fore the world in the light of its great heretical theory. It was she who first importance. These women were the perceived the heightening and failing Marquise du Châtelet and Marie Gastana light of some of the heavenly luminaries, Agnesi, who translated Newton's great and so directed attention to those won- work into French and Italian. The Pope ders of the universe, the variable stars. showed his appreciation by giving the Living close to nature's heart, she cast last-named scientist the chair of matheoff the false notions of the times, and matics at Rome. Such a liberal recogreasoned closer to the real status of the nition of woman's service to science was
worked day and night, figuring the
March 12th, 1759, just one day before
the time predicted by these mathemati
cians. Newton's theories were partially phenomenal in that narrow-minded age, proved, and Madame Lepaute was given the early part of the eighteenth century, the professorship of astronomy at Paris. when any attempt on the part of women A great wave of popular enthusiasm to devote themselves to other duties than and interest in astronomy now swept those of the home was received with over the world. Women in all countries derision and contempt. In no other were turning their attention to this enbranch of activity where women have chanting study. In historic Rome, Cathtaken their places on a level with men, erine Scarpellini conducted a meteorologhas so much help been extended them orical station, published the first catalogue have they been honored so surely and so of the meteors of Italy, discovered a quickly for their achievements, as in as- comet, and printed a monthly scientific tronomy.
bulletin. Co-worker with Sir William For a hundred years after Newton Herschel, that beacon-light of astronomy published his great work, the whole in England, his sister, Caroline Lucretia, course of astronomical investigation was attained great prominence in sidereal given up to testing and proving his science. Nor was it altogether a reflecttheories. Astronomy, which had once meant only observing the stars, now became in addition a matter of abstruse mathematics, and the calculus played as important a part in its history as the telescope. But women, by their valuable work, had made a place for themselves in the astronomical world, and the time soon came when the work could not be carried on without their assistance. About the middle of the eighteenth century, Alexis Claude Clairaut, a noted mathematician and astronomer, was asked to predict when Halley's comet would return to perihelion, i. e., come closest to the sun. This involved long, difficult calculations, and he freely admitted his inability to complete the task alone. “But,” said he, "if Madame Lepaute will assist me, I will undertake the task.” Mme. Nicole Reine Lepaute was the wife of the watchmaker to Louis XV., and she often helped her husband in his calculations for astronomical pendulums. She gladly consented to assist Clair
MARQUISE DU CHÂTELET. aut, and for eighteen months they
ed light that gave her fame, for she have been hindered in carrying out their worked independently, discovering seven plans by those who should have encourcomets herself. Her relations with her aged their ambitions. Her parents were brother were very happy, their mutual opposed to her studies, and she had to interest in astronomy being a source of work out the difficult problems in higher inspiration to both. In England, also, mathematics secretly and without tutorMary Somerville fought to attain emi- age. Her first husband could not apprenence in astronomical research. She is ciate her quest for knowledge, and tried one of the few women astronomers who to discourage her efforts. Heroically she