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A San Francisco girl who has achieved success, renown, and romance in foreign
dent investigation and maintained before all the astronomers and mathematicians of the Observatory before she could be made a Fellow of the Observatory. She prepared a masterly thesis on the rings of Saturn, and read it before the Academy, upholding its conclusions and mathematical processes before them with the dignity and confidence of a great scientist. They could do nothing but admit her; and in the speech conferring upon her the title of Officier de l'Académie,' she was highly complimented by the President as being the only woman who had ever successfully main
tained a thesis before Miss DOROTHEA KLUMPKE, OF THE PARIS OBSERVATORY.
that learned body.
She was assigned the
tremendous task of inher varied experiences. The exploit of dexing and cataloguing all the stars Miss Dorothea Klumpke in the fall of up to the fourteenth magnitude, by the 1901 has made her probably the most International Astronomical Congress, widely noted woman astronomer in the and given four assistants to carry on the world. Photographing the stars from a work. In 1899 she took her first trip in a balloon was one of the daring tasks she balloon to observe a predicted meteoric took upon herself, and it was on such an shower; and ever since that time a large occasion that a noted English astrono- part of her work has been in taking phomer, Dr. Isaac Roberts, was captivated tographs of the heavens from a balloon. by her superior ability and grace. Her courage and daring, as well as care
Miss Klumpke was born in San Francisco, but was taken to Europe by her mother, who wished her daughters to have the best of opportunities. While in Germany, an old professor who took great interest in her used to lend her a small telescope, and it was then that she first formed her ambition to be an astronomer. After accomplishing some brilliant work in mathematics, she applied to the Directors of the Paris Observatory for admittance as a colleague. They hesitated to establish a precedent by admitting a woman; but they could find no rule on the books against it, so they gave her charge of a small telescope. She immediately started to work on her essay, which had to be written from indepen
Miss KLUMPKE'S ASTRONOMICAL STUDY.
The Mississippi as a Mill-Stream
By W. E. Pringle
NEW era in the developing of water power for industrial purposes is dawning in the West. A syndicate of Eastern capitalists, the combined rating of the members
aggregating $300,000,000, proposes to build a dam across the Mississippi river at Keokuk, Iowa, which will be the second greatest waterway dam engineering feat in the world. The dam which is proposed for Keokuk will generate 211,500 horse-power, with which to operate the industrial wheels in many cities.
Niagara Falls, under the present in
This mammoth dam will be of solid concrete, 35 feet wide on the bottom, and about 30 feet high. This will be the first dam ever built across the Mississippi, the plans for which have been drawn under the direction of Hugh L. Cooper, who directed the power installation at Niagara.
The power house will be a magnificent structure of pressed brick and steel, 1,863 feet long and 82 feet wide, absolutely fireproof; and the minimum amount of power to be developed will be 60,000
Although no definite announcement has yet been made as to the date of the beginning of the work of constructing
LOCATION OF THE ONE BIG LOCK IN PROPOSED DAM ACROSS MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT KEOKUK,
IOWA. Lock will be 35 feet high Power house to be at left: government works at right to be destroyed to make way for new
dry docks, which the water-power company will construct to replace the one to be destroyed at the second lock.
stallation, supplies 200,000 horse-power and is the largest water-power plant in the world. In the power house which it is proposed to erect at the foot of the Des Moines rapids at Keokuk, will be 47 immense generators, of 4,500 horsepower each, working on a vertical shaft, like the generators at Niagara. From the upper end of the power house, the dam proper will extend 6,000 feet, in a grand curve, across the river to the Illinois shore.
this dam, the company has already expended over $50,000 in making preliminary investigations and surveys, and has determined that the project is feasible from both engineering and commercial points of view. The estimated cost of construction is placed at about $10,000,000, and it is expected that the work will be completed within two years.
How is it possible to generate such an enormous power at Keokuk? This will be the first question asked by those of a
practical turn of mind. In order properly to answer it, we must take the reader back to the “good old days" before the railways had honeycombed the country from ocean to ocean. The problem which then confronted steamboat men was how to get over the Des Moines rapids at Keokuk, which begin twelve miles above the point where the proposed dam will cross the river. The river runs through a deep gorge at Keokuk This gorge was cut originally by glaciers, and later deepened by the swiftly flowing stream. The current was so swift and the channel so treacherous that it was impossible for steamboats to go farther north than Keokuk or farther south than the head of the rapids. All freight bound for St. Louis or St. Paul had to be unloaded and carried the distance of twelve miles, both going and coming. Keokuk was at that time the head of up-river navigation, to all intents and purposes.
The river interests finally induced the Government to build a canal from Keokuk to the head of the rapids, which canal, after $5,000,000 had been spent in its construction, was opened to navigation in 1877.
On account of the rapids, too swift for the speediest boats to pass over, the idea of a power dam has been the subject of active consideration by promoters for many years. To handle the project promptly and satisfactorily, the Keokuk & Hamilton Water Power Company was organized six years ago. This company brought the matter to the attention of the Government and of financiers, who have finally
LOWER LOCK OF GOVERNMENT CANAL AT FOOT OF DES MOINES RAPIDS, KEOKUK, IOWA
This property will be submerged when proposed dam is built.
made it possible for the citizens of to lay out the lines to determine the flowKeokuk to look forward to the day when age rights it would be necessary to acthe dream of years will be realized. quire. It was found that the dam would
The Eastern syndicate, aided by the elevate the river water level as far north local corporation, succeeded in getting as Burlington, Ia., forty miles away, with Congress to look favorably upon the an area of about 36 square miles, most project, even though it meant that the of which is now within the flood lines $5,000,000 government canal would be of the river. Property owners along the overflowed and ruined. The promise was shore, some of them at any rate, began to made, however, that, while all the federal hint that, when it came to letting go of works in the neighborhood would be their land, they would make the men bedrowned out, new ones would be con- hind Mr. Cooper settle, and at their figstructed without cost to Uncle Sam ; and ure, too. It began to look gloomy for that the dam, instead of being an impedi- the future of what will be the biggest ment, would be a benefit to navigation. dam in the world, save the Assouan dam It was also shown that $40,000 a year in in Egypt, which was built for irrigation present cost of operation of the canal purposes. This was a legal complicawould be saved, as there will be only one tion which was not thought of at the lock after the dam is built, instead of start. three as at present.
Mr. Cooper, the man who does things, This much accomplished, then came gritted his teeth; and everyone on the Engineer Cooper's problem of ascertain- inside in the water-power enterprise was ing the cost of dam and installation. Be- as uncommunicative as the Sphynx when fore anything definite could be done in a asked if there was anything new along commercial way, it was necessary to find the line of advancement. a way to do things which the men in It leaked out in a few days that the Washington would approve, as the War company was not taking any chances in Department was the supreme court in this the building of the Keokuk dam. Mr. instance, and whatever was done had to Cooper, who is at the present time conbe with the approval of the man at the structing a dam across the Susquehanna top.
river near Beaver Falls, Pa., had been It was necessary to determine whether through the mill. He recalled a rather the most economical plans would suit the unpleasant experience in connection with Government; and to ascertain the prob- the Susquehanna enterprise. The comable market for power—including present pany overlooked a little insignificant spot use and future additions in order to cal- in the river down there which for courculate whether the sale of power would tesy's sake is called an island. It was pay dividends on the cost and operating nothing more than a dot in the stream expenses.
which a Pennsylvania farmer had bought These problems were solved to the sat for $30, but which the water-power peoisfaction of the capitalists; and then an ple forgot to buy before they began their other line of thought was opened up work. When settling time came, howWhat would the Burlington Railroad ever, they were just $30,000 out, and the have to say about it, as their tracks par- Pennsylvania farmer that much to the allel the canal and would be overflowed good. from ten to twelve feet at the least? This H aving been burned once, Mr. Cooper led to some clever diplomacy on the part and his associates had more than the of the members of the local company, the proverbial horror of fire; so they asked result being that the C. B. & Q. agreed to Congress to some to their rescue in this raise its tracks and to spend some $200,- case. The upshot of the whole matter 000 in order to get into Keokuk. Other was that just before Congress adjourned lines of road also agreed to make the in June a bill was passed which reads as necessary changes in their tracks and to follows: be reasonable in their claims for damages.
"That whenever any person, company,or cor
poration, municipal or private, shall undertake But the worst was yet to come, as was
to secure, for the purpose of conveying the soon found out when the surveyors began same to the United States free of cost, any land