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DES MOINES RAPIDS CANAL, KEOKUK, IOWA, AND VIEW OF THE RAPIDS. Burlington tracks alongside canal will be submerged 35 feet by building of proposed dam across the Mississippi at this point.
GOVERNMENT WORKS AT LOWER LOCK OF DES MOINES RAPIDS CANAL, KEOKUK. ICWA. Power house will be built starting at point 200 feet to the right of coal barges in canal, and will extend upstream 1,863 feet, where the dam proper will start
MIDDLE LOCK OF DES MOINES RAPIDS CANAL, KEOKUK, IOWA. Government dry dock at right.--This is another section of the $5,000,000 government works which will be
destroyed to make way for the overflow caused by construction of the 6,000-foot dam across the Mississippi.
or easement therein, needed in connection with The Mississippi river at the point sea work of river and harbor improvement duly lected has a limestone bottom; and the authorized by Congress, and shall be unable for any reason to obtain a valid title thereto, the
lake above the dam will be bounded by Secretary of War may, in his discretion, cause limestone bluffs close to the banks of the proceedings to be instituted in the name of the river, which for miles flows through a United States for the acquirement by condem- deep gorge. The building of the dam nation of said land or easement; and it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General of the will transform the treacherous Des United States to institute and conduct such Moines rapids into a calm lake two and proceedings upon the request of the Secretary three miles wide at different points and of War:
nearly 35 miles long. The dam will be "Provided, That all the expenses of said proceedings, and any award that may be made
35 feet above the low-water mark; and thereunder, shall be paid by the said person, water, as already said, will be backed company, or corporation, to secure which pay- nearly to Burlington, which city is about ment the Secretary of War may require the fortv.miles upstream from Keokuk said person, company, or corporation to execute a proper bond in such amount as he may deem
As a commercial proposition, this necessary before said proceedings are com- project has to do with very cheap power
in the midst of a great corn belt; with a The passage of that bill removed the population in 1900 of 242,161 within last impediment so far as concerned the forty miles; a population of 1,468,496 acquiring of the land needed for the im- within 100 miles; and a population of provement, and incidentally let everyone 3,917,046 within about 150 miles. There know that there must be just grounds for is no competition except steam power the assertion that the construction of the within the sphere of activity of this dam, dam would be a good thing for the river and there can be none of any practical interests.
consequence. A lock is required for river boats, and The positive statement has not yet been the effect of the dam will be to improve made that the dam will be built, because navigation greatly on the river, and that, options on all the property have not been too, where there has hitherto been the acquired. Of course, nothing is cergreatest obstruction between St. Paul, St. tain except death; but the opinion of the Louis, and New Orleans. All railroad men on the inside is that the dam will and river interests favor the project, and be built, and that work on its constructhe bill referred to passed both houses tion will start not later than the first of unanimously under suspension of rules. the year.
Fit Girls for Work
By Livingston Wright
T HE Boston Trade tively short time a trąde training could
School for Girls, of be given a girl, sufficient to afford her which a branch may greater opportunities in the employments soon be established in where skilled workers are needed; that Chicago, and which parents would appreciate the fact that a is now closing the sec- trade training would result in such inond year of its exist- creased opportunities for the future as to
"ence, is doing a work justify the forfeiture of any immediate of incalculable value to the girls who are wages the girl could earn in unskilled its students and to the community. The employments; and, finally, that the girl work is of value to the girl because it en- herself would appreciate the opportuniables her to enter employment at an initial ties offered her, sufficiently to devote the wage about three times what she could necessary time without pay to training hope to receive if she began without in a school conducted on shop principles, training; and—what is quite as impor- where the hours must be long and the tant, if not more so—she can enter at once work continuous and serious. the better-skilled trades in which are In equipment, the school hired a buildchances for advancement and hope for ing which had once been a residence, the future. The work of this school is and which provided room for about sixty of value to the community because it pupils. At no time has the school been makes more efficient workers and bet- other than full, and for the larger part ter-developed young women physically, of its existence a considerable waiting mentally, and morally out of these girls, list has been maintained. Local condiwho, the children of to-day, are to be the tions in Boston and its vicinity led to the wives and the mothers of the years to concentration of the training upon those come.
trades which center about the needle and The Boston Trade School for Girls, the foot- and electric-power machines. as it exists to-day, is the outcome of an An electric motor was set up, of sufficient experiment tried in the summer of 1904. power to drive twenty machines. FootThis summer experiment, begun in July, power machines, tables, and the other arcontinued for nine weeks. The phil- ticles necessary for plain sewing, dressanthropic women behind the venture de- making, and millinery, were provided. sired to determine by actual experiment The basement was fitted up for a lunch whether or not it were possible to give room, and so arranged that a simple to young girls a trade instruction that training could be given in the cooking would meet the demands which employ- and serving of lunches. The large double ers were making upon young women de- parlor of the house is used for the daily siring to enter the trades in which skilled assemblies, for some of the more popworkers were demanded. The nine ular classes, for gymnastics, and for reweeks of a summer session were too creation during the noon recess. In the brief to afford conclusive evidence of the upper part of the house, commodious wisdom or the feasibility of the under and well-lighted studios were fitted up taking; buć they did demonstrate the for the work in design. truth of three propositions sufficiently to The departments of the school during justify the continuation of the school the past year have been Dressmaking, throughout the winter. The results Millinery, and Machine Operating. To achieved during the first summer made these, Straw-Hat Making has been it appear probable that in a compara- added, and will be taught in the future. In each of these departments the girl The fundamental plan and conception is prepared to enter a variety of trades. of the school is educational. It can hope The work in dressmaking, for example, to give necessary experience, skill, and is so planned that a girl may take a posi- speed in the more fundamental processes tion as seamstress, dressmaker's helper, of a trade; it cannot hope to produce exexperienced skirt finisher, waist finisher, pert dressmakers or milliners. To this or sleeve-maker, according to the aptitude end, the conditions of a well-conducted of the individual and the length of time shop are reproduced as nearly as posshe has been able to devote to training. sible. The girls work from 9 A. M. until The same is true of millinery. The girl is 5 P. M., with an hour or so for lunch at prepared to be frame-maker, hat-maker, noon. Just sufficient discipline is mainor, if special ability be shown, trimmer. tained to prevent the dissipation of time To the girl who understands how to op and energy. Instruction is individual, a erate machinery run by electric power, girl advances as fast as she is able. Each a great variety of trades are open. The process must be well done before the power-driven machine is used in all the next process is attempted. Correctness sewing trades. The girl able to operate and not speed is the first thing emphathe power sewing-machine can go into sized. When correctness has been atthe apron factories, shirt factories, or tained, speed is developed. When the the establishments making shirt-waists girl has learned steady application and and dresses for the wholesale trade. This persistent effort, and has become actraining on the power machine is of customed to long hours and accurate value to the girl who seeks employment work, the methods of the schoolroom are in the shoe factory, the glove factory, gradually abandoned in dealing with her, and the upholstery shop. The growth and those of the shop adopted. The aim of the school during the immediate fu- of the school is to give first a correct ture will probably be chiefly in the ex- method, then an intelligent understandtension of the power machinery depart- ing of the processes involved, and finally ment. The introduction of a few special the necessary speed and independence machines would offer the girl an oppor- required by the employer. tunity of becoming a specialized worker I n connection with the strictly trade in trades like button-hole making and work, and supplementary to it, the school machine embroidery.
gives every girl a course in practical designing. To develop an appreciation of or seeking to enter the millinery and beautiful lines and shapes, tones and col- dressmaking establishments, the reason ors, is an important part of the education for going to work is not abject poverty. given every girl. The lunch-room and The recent report of the Commission of kitchen in the basement is as important the Legislature on Industrial and Trade a supplement to the immediate trade in- Education, states that 85 per cent of the struction as is the studio in the attic. girls in millinery and dressmaking whose Here the girls are taught to prepare cases were studied by the Commission some simple dish to eke out the cold were quite able to afford further training lunch brought from home, to care for the than they had received. That report lunch-room, and to serve the luncheon shows clearly that the critical period of attractively. The expense of materials the girl's life is the years between 14 and is met by a contribution of 10 cents a 16. Under the law she can go to work week from each girl. The work in the at 14. Employers report that the girl kitchen and lunch-room teaches the under 16 is of very little value except value of coöperation in reducing cost, to run errands or in such juvenile ocand is a good training not only for the cupations as cash girl in a department home but for the many shops and fac store or dipper in a candy factory. In tories where facilities for preparing other words the girl who is looking forlunches are now offered. Out of this ward to a life of toil, who belongs to the work, furthermore, may develop at some laboring class in the semi-technical future time a trade related to household meaning of that word, feels when she work.
reaches 14 a sense of restlessness, a The Trade School for Girls fills a strong desire to be about the business real place in the industrial life of Bos of life. The high school, with its marked ton. More than half the girls in the pub- academic character, does not reach or lic schools of the city leave to go to work hold her. She rushes into what work when they are between fourteen and six- she can get, at whatever wages she can teen years of age. Furthermore, in the secure. The employments open to these great majority of cases of girls entering girls who pour out of the public schools