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and seek to become wage-earners with- in a nobler, finer womanhood. It is no out experience and training, require no wonder that girls and their parents are skill and offer no opportunity for ad- willing to make sacrifices to secure for vancement in either wage or position. themselves or their children the benefits
of such training for the work of life. "They demand,” says the Massachusetts re- Girls are quite willing to spend a year port on Industrial and Technical Education, "very little thought, leaving the girl's mind
in the school—a year, it must be rememopen to all sorts of evil just at the age when she bered. when they might according to law most needs something to exercise her mental be earning, for the school will receive faculties; they offer as a maximum wage that
no girl until she is fourteen years old. which is not sufficient for a girl to live upon with any degree of respectability, and thus
The children who are crowding the place her in the way of temptation to be im
school to its capacity are the daughters moral; they not only offer no training which of men in humble circumstances—teamwill be of benefit in a home, but they foster in
sters, day laborers, and the like. They the girl just the characteristics which unfit her as a wife and a mother. As long as the
come some of them from distant parts schools do not train the girls for the better
of the city and from near-by towns. class of industry, they are forcing them into Some of them have helped to earn the the stores as cash girls, into candy factories,
money for their car-fares by the sweat rubber factories, box factories-employments all tending to lower the standards of our
of their own brows. One little fourteenwomen. On the other hand, the more desirable year-old girl took in washing with her industries offer opportunities for self-sup- mother until the two had saved $100 with port, for advancement, for development; and
which to pay her way back and forth these are at present largely closed to the young girl because of lack of training."
from Boston during the school year.
Already this work so quietly and efIt is no wonder that the managers of ficiently done is attracting attention from the Boston Trade School for Girls in- other parts of the country. Chicago and sist that the $150 a year which it takes Cleveland are discussing the idea of atto give a girl a year's training in the tempting something similar in their own school is money well-spent. It is re- cities. It is to be hoped for the sake of turned to the community many, many the girls that the experiment may be tried fold in added efficiency of workers and in both places.
THE SUDDEN DEMAND OF THE MILK INSPECTOR. In Brussels these officials often unexpectedly demand samples from the public milk seller with her queer little cart
and team of dogs.
ŽNE of the greatest signs of twenty miles of the Canadian boundary,
modern progress is the and their “beat" likewise takes them into care exercised nowadays remote corners of New Jersey, Pennsylin protecting the public of vania, and Connecticut. The inspectors great cities in the matter see firstly that the dairies supplying New
of their food supply. It is York are kept in strict sanitary condiestimated that between 400,000 and 500,- tion, and secondly that no milk is shipped 000 persons are probably alive to-day in which is above a temperature of fifty deNew York, solely through the efforts of grees. Naturally this calls for an enorthe Health Department. This result is mous consumption of ice on the part of chiefly due to Dr. Herman M. Biggs, a the dairies, except in mid-winter. Cornell man, and a disciple of the fa- Naturally enough, the milk-inspectors mous Professor Koch of Berlin.
of the Health Department have no jurisDoctor Biggs undoubtedly saves every diction outside New York State; but year the lives of thousands of American they can and do get even with recalcitbabes by his system of milk inspection rant dairymen who do not comply with alone. His Department maintains two the regulations ; for the milk of such peoinspectors of long scientific experience, ple is promptly condemned when it whose sole duty it is to examine with reaches the city. scrupulous impartiality and system all Milk comes into New York City in the dairies and creameries for many "train-loads and boat-loads, and is dealt miles around, which supply America's with by sixteen inspectors of the Health greatest city.
Department. These men visit the great They work as far north as within railroad terminals, docks, and piers, and
make tests entirely at random, ruthlessly tained if it has been watered, adulterated, spilling and throwing away all milk its cream removed, or any other trickery above a temperature of fifty degrees. practiced.
The shops and stores are also sys- It is no small matter to look after the tematically visited, and here the test is seven or eight thousand milk stores in far more strict, practically amounting to the Borough of Manhattan alone, and a chemical analysis. And if the milk from these nearly 40,000 samples are coldoes not come up to the required stand- lected and analyzed every year. Con
THE FINAL TEST. Chemist at work in the Municipal Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium. Here the samples of milk taken at random from the
dog-carts by the public inspectors, are sent for bacteriological and chemical analysis.
ard, or if it has been watered, it is also ditions have vastly changed, however, in destroyed, and the vendor arrested. the last four years; and the number of Many thousands of quarts of milk are infants who in summertime die from destroyed in this way each year in New diarrhæal diseases due to doctored milk York; and hardly a day passes that (there were more than 6,000 such cases heavy fines, even up to $200, are not in- in the summer season of 1901), steadily flicted on dishonest dealers guilty of sell- grows less and less. ing bad or impure milk. A second of- Such is the system in New York City. fense means that the dealer's permit will Strict as this may seem, however, the be entirely revoked. Most careful tab is method is far stricter and the penalties kept on over 400 creameries, from which more stringent in European cities. In come from a million and a-half to a mil- London, the London County Council has lion and three-quarter quarts every day. inspectors going round the streets who Then, too, hundreds of angry citizens are practically detectives and suddenly may bring in samples of doubtful milk, swoop upon itinerant tradesmen, to test which is analyzed free of charge in the not only the quality of their wares, but chemical laboratory; and woe unto the also their weights and measures. In the dealer from whom the sample was ob- British metropolis the poor buy in ex
tremely small quantities—for example, three of the famous draught dogs of Bela cent's worth, and even half a cent's gium, each of whom may be so valuable worth of milk. The small dealers who to its owner by reason of his speed, encater to this trade are the worst offenders durance, and economy of maintenance in the way of adulteration. They are that he may cost more than a full-sized not only fined when detected, however, donkey. but a second offense means double or For the most part, the women walk triple fine, with added imprisonment and hurriedly by the side of the milk cart ; hard labor—which
utter ruin and on arriving at a customer's door, the thereafter.
dog-team flop themselves down with lolIn Paris, much the same system ob- ling tongues, glad of a few minutes' tains ; but there the Municipal Labora- respite from the weary drag up steep tory under Professor Girard is perhaps cobble-paved lanes, leading from the the most elaborate in all Europe. This lower city to the Place Royale quarter. eminent chemist and bacteriologist has But Brussels, too, fairly swarms with under him a very large staff of as- milk inspectors from the Municipal Labsistants; and their inspectors, with whom oratory; and when Madame least expects they are in constant touch all day, are it, she and her dog-team are pounced so numerous as to cover the entire city upon by a uniformed official, who takes and act with absolutely deterrent effect from her a small sample of her wares, upon possible evil-doers.
together with her name and address and In Belgium the system of milk inspec- the number of her license. tion takes on a picturesque character, ow- The milk-women well know what will ing to the peculiar dog-drawn carts that happen if the milk they are selling is not parade the streets. The rolling country up to a generous standard of purity and all around Brussels is fairly dotted with richness. And one point well worthy farms supplying the capital; and even of note in this connection is that "graft" on the historic battlefield of Waterloo are is absolutely unknown. In Paris, Lonnow established peaceful creameries that don, or Brussels, no guilty milk-dealer supply the big hotels of the City.. would ever dream of even attempting to
The milk is retailed to small women bribe an inspector, as this is rated quite dealers, and by them hawked through the a serious crime, and under the law is held steep and narrow streets that radiate punishable by twelve months' imprisonfrom the mediæval Grande Place, in the ment at hard labor, without the option of queerest of carts drawn by one, two, and a fine.
AMILLE DU GAST seated the starting signal thrown the observers herself in her 35-horse- into a frenzy of excitement, when the power racing car. The white racing cat flashed between the Tuilleries gardens filled to long lines of watchers.
long lines of watchers. A few minutes overflowing with the fair- later the gates of the city were left be
est Parisian devotees of hind, and myriads of spectators lining the motoring, scarcely afforded room for course to Bordeaux, the first stage of the her to pilot her car along the white rib- race, waved “Vive la motoriste!" as the bon of street. With hands somewhat car bounded on beneath the hot summer nervously clutching the steering wheel, sun of 1903. Madame du Gast was one her right foot lightly resting on the brake, of 200 contestants in the event, out of her left feverishly waiting the word which number she was eighth to reach “Go," when in an instant it would re- Bordeaux, where the officials called off lease the clutch, the purring motor would the race because of the deplorable loss of be connected to the driving wheels, and life. the premier lady motorist of the world Two years before, France received its would be off on the long run from Paris introduction to this intrepid lady motorto Madrid—which proved to be the most ist, at which date she startled society by disastrous race in motoring annals- entering her racing machine in a road Madame du Gast sat the cynosure of all race from Paris to Berlin, an event in eyes. To her left was her sole companion which she was one of 100 contestants and on the hazardous trip, a factory mechanic in which she finished in nineteenth place. commissioned as an aide. Scarcely had Her race was a laudatory procession. At