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times her assistant had to cast from the car the bunches of flowers showered on her as she passed through the hamlets and towns. At stopping points, men and women fought for the privilege of grasping her hand, and at the completion of the tour she was given an ovation.

In all of her races, Madame du Gast acted as mécanicien, assisted only by her aide in tasks where one person was not sufficient. When the motor failed to respond, she alighted, raised the covering, tested the ignition, adjusted the carbureter, replaced the covering, and started once again. When tires gave trouble en route, her hands were first in removing the ruined tire from the wheel and quickest in making a replacement. She lived with her machine, studying it as a horseman does' his favorite steed. Nothing speaks better of her devotion to the car than her own words:

"I have full control of my car; I feel that she obeys me and will have to obey me, anyhow. She must go where I want her to go, in the way I want her to go; and the things I do in accomplishing this are very natural and quite simple. Then, too, you get to like your machine as one likes a horse. You love it; you take care of it; you know it almost like you know yourself. If you feel the car is not running right, the prettiest scenery along the road fails to attract, and you become sad, worried,

MADAME CAMILLE DU GAST. and nervous. On the other hand, if everything

Noted French motorist. goes well, you hear the motor ‘purring' properly, and it readily responds to every movement you desire; you feel real happy, there is takes on a prettier aspect. The pleasure of pleasure in traveling, and the beautiful scenery speed is rather an obscure sensation, yet is

quite agreeable. At a speed of seventy miles per hour, if the road is straight and level, the sensation rapidly disappears and becomes less than that when traveling much slower on more hazardous roads."

Madame du Gast's behavior in the celebrated Paris-Madrid race revealed the true woman beneath the formidable head-dress and other motoring monstrosities. When approaching Bordeaux, traveling at over 70 miles per hour, she espied by the roadside the overturned car of a

friend. The application MADAME DE Gast in 35-HORSE-Power Car in Paris-Madrid RACE.

of brakes soon brought her car to a standstill, and she gave all band's car in a race over the Sicilian due assistance to the injured friend. His mountains on the sixth of May this year. solicitations for her to go on and leave The race brought together the fastest him to his fate elicited the prompt re- talent in all Europe, in spite of which Le sponse, “A woman must always stop to Blon was content that his wife should act help a suffering person, even if she is as his assistant throughout the run. On traveling 75 miles an hour."


every occasion when trouble came, she But the laurels of woman in motoring was equal to the moment, effecting recannot all rest with Madame du Gast. pairs which showed she was complete France has produced many others, who, master of the car; and after her husband while their names have not been found had crossed the winning line, she took

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among the entrants in big speed contests, the wheel and drove rapidly to the have made performances so very haz- garage. ardous as to warrant their names being As yet, America has given few addiclosely associated with the boldest. tions to the role of lady motorists, none Madame Lockert, with her three lady of whom has achieved great prominence. companions, was the first motorist to Every day on the streets of the leading make the continuous run from Paris to cities the largest gasoline machines are St. Petersburg, Russia, driving all the seen in the hands of competent women, wav herself, and making all tire and car who guide them with facility through the repairs with her own hands. The trip most congested streets, and, when in the aroused international interest a couple of open, are capable of making forty miles years ago, chiefly owing to the route an hour. Many of these women share passing through parts of Russia which a honors with their French contemporaries motor-car had never before traversed, in their knowledge of the carbureter, the and where the occupants were frequently magneto, the brakes, and the many other endangered by rash officials and hostile parts that go to make up the somewhat peasant bands.

complicated machine. Last year saw a Still another fair Parisian has enrolled lady drive a car 1,000 miles in one of the in the ranks of famous motorists. Ma- biggest American road events, and this dame Le Blon, wife of a famous French vear has witnessed several other notable racer, acted as mécanicien on her hus- performances.

What About the Turbine?*

By Robert Cromie

THE HIon. Charles Al- The Turbinia was only 100 feet long; the

gernon Parsons, M.A., Lusitania, the mammoth Cunarder, is D.Sc., F.R.S., etc., pro nearly 800 eet long. The Turbinia was prietor of the electrical engined up to 2,300 horse-power; the and engineering works Lusitania will be engined up to nearly of C. A. Parsons & Co., 70,000 horse-power. That is an extraat Heaton, Newcastle- ordinary advance in a decade. There is on-Tyne, and Managing nothing like it in the history of me

Director of the Parsons chanics. Marine Steam Turbine Co., Ltd., is the It must be remembered that the refourth son of the third Earl of Rosse, ciprocating or piston engine had been the the celebrated astronomer whose tele- subject of a century's experiments and scope at Parsonstown was for a long time improvements when the turbine chalthe largest in the world. Mr. Parsons is lenged it on even terms. I am aware that thus the distinguished son of a dis- the whole of the turbine case is not adtinguished father; and as inventor, or mitted by all engineers ; indeed I am acperfecter, of the marine steam turbine, quainted with some, whose opinion I he is now one of the most prominent fig- value, who stoutly dispute the turbine's ures in modern engineering. Mr. Par-, superiority. But I think there are few sons was educated by private tuition and who would deny Mr. Rankin Kennedy's at St. John's College, Cambridge. The carefully weighed declaration, that, whatbiographical brevity, "Scholar 1873; 11th ever may be in store for the turbine, the Wrangler 1876," attests the distinction piston engine has now reached finality in he won.

that form. In order to introduce a short But all other honors and activities must sketch of the present position and probgive place to his position as the sponsor able future of the steam turbine, I shall of the marine steam turbine, albeit that briefly indicate its history in the last decinnovation has an ostensible history of ade. less than a decade. By "ostensible" I The Turbinia having demonstrated the mean that it is only nine years since the practicality of the invention, she was sucTurbinia made that marvelous dash of ceeded by the gunboats Viper and Cobra ; forty miles an hour round the fleet at and these having met with mishaps, timid Spithead, on the occasion of the Diamond soothsayers prophesied evil for the turJubilee of Queen Victoria. That epoch- bine. In spite of their jeremiads, the enmarking incident introduced a new feat- gine was installed on the Clyde steamer ure into practical mechanics, although we King Edward, built by Messrs. Denny may be certain that the little vessel, in Bros., of Dumbarton. That was the first spite of her meteor-like appearance and start of the steam turbine for use in comperformance, was not the result of a mercial steamers. In the year which follucky guess, but rather the outcome of lowed the advent of the King Edward, many years of patient experiment and the Queen Alexandra was added to the searching investigation. From that first, turbine list by the same firm, and several I might say sensational, public perform- improvements were introduced which ance of the Turbinia, the progress of the added to the speed of the vessel without engine has been always steady ; latterly increasing proportionately the power of it has entered upon a triumphal march. her engines or her coal consumption.

Then more gunboats were turbine-en*Extracted from an article in the "World's Work and

gined; private yachts followed the lead;


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the Royal Navy joined in with larger the reciprocating engine; and this limit ships; and while the first turbine cruiser, will possibly include before long vessels the Amethyst, was only 9,800 horse down to 13 knots of 20,000 tons and uppower, the turbine Dreadnought, launched wards. Even slower ships may be brought a few months ago, will be the most pow- into line later; and, although only in its erful warship afloat.

early infancy, the turbine would now be Meantime the commercial progress of suitable for one-fifth the total steam tonthe turbine was not less of the leaping nage of the world. This is a striking oband bounding character. The Anglo- ject-lesson on the rapidity of the march French cross-channel service followed of modern mechanics. the example of the Clyde, and in turn It is interesting to learn that Mr. Parwas followed by the Irish and English sons thinks it probable a combination of Channel boats. Long-distance steamers the reciprocating and turbine engine will to Australia and New Zealand took a be found the best machinery for vessels hand in this wonderful game (the Loon of the “tramp" class in the immediate gana proved very satisfactory), and the future. In a slow vessel it is manifest attack on the Atlantic was led by the the revolutions must be low, because a Allan Liners Victorian and Virginian. certain disc area of propeller and a cerIn the last phase, it is true, fortune tain number of square feet of blade area proved unkind for a time, and the tur- are necessary in order to avoid too great bine's future seemed to have passed un- a slip ratio, and consequent loss of proder a cloud. But the cloud since then peller efficiency. The highest revolutions has cleared away, and the sun of destiny possible must be accepted; but these in, shines as strongly as ever on the new say, a 10-knot ship, are but a low figure. engine. With the launch of the Lusi- From technical reasons, the turbine is not tania, most progressive marine architects highly efficient under these conditions. and engineers have agreed that at least But the turbine can deal economically for fast passenger steamers the day of with very low-pressure steam, and in the the piston engine is passing, and will ordinary “tramp” the steam, although soon have passed, like so many of man's usefully expanded down to about 7 lbs.' inventions, into the void of things that pressure absolute, is then released into have been.

the condenser, and the remaining energy, This matter of fast steamers is im- down to about 112 lbs., is almost entirely portant, for it is a limitation of the tur- lost. The turbine picks up 70 per cent of bine in its present development that it is this waste product, and turns it on to not a profitable engine for a slow ship. help in the driving of the ship. Mr. Par

In his presidential address to the In- sons is very clear and also very confident stitute of Marine Engineers at Stratford on this really wide field for turbine emin January, 1905, Mr. Parsons put the ployment: matter of high revolutions in the piston

"The additional power gained by the use of and turbine engine very succinctly: this low-pressure turbine has been calculated

to be between 15 per cent and 20 per cent of the “The high revolutions which we dread in the

whole now realized-a gain of the same order reciprocating engine are a boon with the tur as was obtained in the advance from the combine, where bearings and thrust bearings are pound to the triple engine. This is the main automatically lubricated, and the higher revo

feature of the case; minor points, of course, lutions mean smaller screw-shafts and pro there are-such as improvements of the conpellers, and less weight on the tunnel blocks." denser (as a good vacuum is very essential to

all turbines for the best results) and also feedAnother feature is the deeper im heaters fed from the exhaust of auxiliaries, or mersion of the propellers, owing to which low-pressure steam drawn from the main eneven turbine yachts can cross the Atlantic

gines for heating the colder feed due to the

higher vacuum; and there are also other minor in heavy weather without any perceptible

points; but I am sure that some arrangement, racing of the engines.

such as I have endeavored to indicate, will be As regards the turbine's future, Mr. largely used for the 'tramp' engines of the Parsons has no fears. In vessels of 16 near future." knots sea-speed and upwards, and over There is still another new field for the 5,000 indicated horse-power, he is con- marine steam turbine, and in it a beginfident that it will soon entirely supersede ning has now been made—namely, the

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