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water to the temperature at which it is the boilers at the time of increase of load, converted into steam. It also reduces enable the steam generators to work up to strains and insures more perfect combus- peak load with the expenditure of little tion, for the boiler plates are maintained extra fuel. The great storage capacity at a constant high temperature.

of the economizer will in many plants One may ask, why not use a longer boiler,

supply the boilers for nearly an hour.

The economizer is a feed-water heater; or a larger one, and extract the heat in this way rather than install an economizer? It is but, unlike the usual type of feed-water evident that the temperature of the gases can- heater, flue gases are used instead of not be greatly reduced in the boiler, for they must be at a temperature much higher than

steam which may be available for other that of the steam, else no steam will form. purposes. It uses heat that otherwise is But in the economizer the water is heated, not lost. It is customary to install about four converted into steam, therefore the gases may square feet of economizer heating surbe at a lower temperature than the steam and

face per boiler horse-power. The inyet be effective.

crease in temperature of the feed water In power plants running under a varia- depends upon the size of the economizer, ble road, as in street-railway work or but is often about 150° F. With a feedelectric lighting, the economizer acts as water heater, and an economizer, the an accumulator. During the hours of boilers may be supplied with water at light load, the banked fires slowly heat over 300°; thus the boiler simply contons of water, which, being ready to enter verts the water into steam.


Pass it On

Natural Hesitation

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Europe's Sick Man
0, the vultures, let them tulich!
And the bussards, let them buss!
For the poor Abdul Aziz
Soon will be Abdul Azwuz.


His Idea

Now, Pat,” said a magistrate to an old offender, “what brought you here again?”

"Two policemin, sor, was the laconic reply. “Drunk, I suppose," queried the magistrate. Yes, sor," said Pat, "both av thim.'

"Good morning, mammy," greeted the tourist.

"Mawnin', sali," responded mammy.
"Where's your son Sam?"
“Gone, sah, Ah dunno wheh.”

"Well, he always was a bad boy, mammy."

** 'Deed he was, sah. He was dess lak det ol' blue umbrella Ah los' in de thunderstohm. He was hahd to raise, powahful hard to raise ; en afteh Ah did raise him, he jes' jumped away fum me, en Ah ain't seen him since." Chicago News.

Foxy Said a broken down fox: I hate spent Ezery dollar I had," and he went

To a wealthy old skunk

For the loan of a plunk, But the skunk wouldn't give him a scent.


Pure Food Bill "Pa,” said little Willie, looking up from his book, "what does the Spirit of '76' mean?”

Artless Aspiring A SCHOOL-TEACHER one day, during the hour for drawing, suggested to her pupils that each draw what he or she would like to be when grown up.

At the end of the lesson, one little girl showed an empty slate.

"Why," said the teacher, "isn't there anything you would like to be when you grow

"Yes," said the little girl, “I would like to be married, but I don't know how to draw it.”— Life.

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"Well," replied the elder William, “that's usually a fake. I don't believe there is any thirty-year-old whisky on the market to-day.”

One on John A MANHATTAN woman when asked how she liked the recent earthquake there replied: "Fine. It's the first thing that has happened at our house since we were married that John didn't blame me for.”—Manhattan (Kan.) Republic.

The Last Bridge
Gushed the Lady, "Of course one agrees
That Bridge is a form of disease;

But I feel I could play

Till the Last Judgment Day, Then cry, 'Gabriel, no trumps! if you please!'"

When Saunders Wanted a Change Bishop DOANE, of Albany, who is keenly interested in the abolition of the divorce evil, paused for a moment, in an earnest discussion of divorce, to narrate a pat anecdote.

"The motive of these people," he said, "is like the motive of a Scot who was found weeping one day by his comfortable hearth.

** 'Eh, Saunders, mon,' said a neighbor, peeping in at the open door, attracted by the sounds of woe, 'what's ailin' ye?'

‘Oh, dear; oh, dear,' sobbed Saunders, ‘Donald Mackintosh's wife is dead.'

“Aweel,' said the neighbor, 'what o' that? She's nae relation o? yours.

“I ken she's no',' wailed Saunders. “I ken she's no'. But it just seems as if everybody's gettin' a change but me.''

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Is Tha-at So?
This is the burden of my song,

I sing it day and night:
Why are so many always wrong
When I am always right?


JOHNNY-Sure, ma'am ; I have de mark on me arm yet.Brooklyn Life.

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A Filler Mary had a little calf

White as whitest snow, Whene'er she put her stocking on,

In that calf would go.

Why It's So BLOBBS—There seems to be a strange affinity between a colored man and a chicken.

SLOBBS—Naturally. One is descended from Ham and the other from eggs.-Philadelphia Record.

DOCTOR—"Oh, it's all right. I have another patient in the neighborhood, so I can kill two birds with one stone.”Judge.


Swiss Road Building tween Switzerland and Italy, is at this

moment constructing a branch line from T is a question whether, quite apart Brunnen, on the lovely Lake Lucerne, to

from its insignificant size, little Switz- Morschach, a quaint little village beyond erland has not even numerically more Axenstein. This important spur line was railroads than any other country on begun last season from Altdorf in Canearth. The lovely little republic has been ton L'ri—where, by the way, the country called “a country of mountains run by folk give a great open-air representation hotel-keepers ;" and certainly every con

of Schiller's "William Tell" in summer, siderable peak, from the Savoy to the which attracts visitors from all parts of Austrian frontier, has its "rack-and- Europe. A road for the tracks has literpinion” system, and other scenic railroads ally to be blasted out of the wall-like are projected or else in actual process of faces of terrific precipices that run sheer construction.

from the level of Lake Lucerne to For example, the far-famed St. Gott height of three or four thousand feet ; hard Railroad, which pierces the Alps be- and on this account the work is exceed



Cutting the roadway at a precarious point on the route between Brunnen and Morschach.



Sprays Huge Tube THE accompanying illustrations show

a machine used in whitewashing a London tube railway. E. P. Grove, head engineer of the Central London Railroad, conceived the idea that the tunnel would be better illuminated if the walls were whitened so as to diffuse the light. The ordinary paint spraying machines, he decided, would not perform adequate service, as the maker could not meet his exact requirements. With some changes, he has found what he wanted in a machine used for washing hop-fields. The nozzles of this have been increased to forty in

number, the tank being mounted on the Car EQUIPPED WITH WHITEWASH-SPRAYING DEVICE. car and connected with a motor which

drives the pump. An additional tank has

been included for the purpose of keeping ingly costly, difficult, and dangerous.

the whitewash thoroughly mixed. From a The Swiss, when constructing a new rail

hugh iron tank forming part of the waroad of this kind, employ thousands of

ter-softening plant in the railroad depot, Italian laborers, who come through the

and standing close to the track, the car St. Gotthard tunnel from Milan and Southern Italy.

tank when empty can readily be refilled.

The car, when at work, progresses at a A scenic railroad is being built up the 13,000-foot Jungfrau: and at the Eigergletschen station (7,565 ft.) there is a regular workmen's colony, with stores, huts for the men, restaurants, etc. Here the rock-blasters and general laborers live all the year round. A big baking oven supplies fresh bread daily, and the huts are lit with electric light, for which power is obtained from the waterfalls. There is even a small emergency hospital, and minor accidents are treated by the senior engineers.

Among the best known of the scenic railroads of Switzerland are the Rigi, whose summit commands a 300-mile panorama; Pilatus; the Brunig Pass; the Bernese Oberland; the St. Gotthard itself, which cost $52,400,000; the Gornergrat of Zermatt; the Albula, one of the latest of all; the Mont Salève; and the Rochers de Naye.

But the greatest of all scenic railroads is just begun, and that is the one up Mont Blanc itself, the colossal 16,000-foot giant of the Alps. The fare will be as much as $20 for a bare ten-mile run; but then the enormous cost of the undertaking must speed of about two miles an hour. A be borne in mind, and also the fact that mile of the tunnel's surface can be passengers can be carried only for a few sprayed twice within this time, someweeks during the entire year.-W. G. thing over 1,000 gallons of the white Fitz-GERALD.

liquid being used in this distance.




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