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New Rim for Autos THE 'HE recent Grand Prix automobile
races in France introduced to the world a new invention—the detachable rim. The merit of this novelty is said to lie more in its labor-saving than in its time-saving qualities. This
This fact is of considerable moment to the autoist, however, when one considers the hard work experienced by him in replacing his tire by the old method. The detachable rim is flanged in the ordinary way. Near the outer edge of the rim six projecting ears are riveted. On the wheel itself, six bolts project. Bolts and ears interlock. In order to inflate the tire, it must first be dismounted. However, an improved model is now being constructed with the special end in view of overcoming this difficulty.
PORTABLE ROCK-CRUSHER AT WORK IN SAN FRANCISCO.
Floorless Bridge NEW JEW MEXICO boasts of an automo
bile bridge believed to be the first of its kind in the world. The bridge was constructed by a mail and passenger stage line to span the Macho, a creek on
the route. The beams are thrown across the chasm, with no other support than the banks. Hence no concern need be had for freshets. Moreover, to save expense, as well as to secure a most effective cattle guard, no floor was laid. The automobile, as the illustration shows, practically runs on a track. This track is constructed in the form of two shallow, narrow troughs, so that the tires fit in with no danger of the machine meeting disaster. The chauffeurs cross the bridge at full speed, with no more concern than if the bridge were of the customary sort. Nervous passengers do not enjoy this feature of the ride, however. In length, the bridge is sixty-four feet, and has proved most satisfactory.
Crushers THE HE work of rehabilitating the street
car system of San Francisco is proving a herculean task. As all of the various cable lines were practically wrecked by shock and fire, they are now Leing converted into electric trolley lines.
In the tearing up of the cable roadbeds, and in the laying of new I-beam rails, a vast amount of ballasting is necessary. To expedite this colossal undertaking, the United Railroads Company have improvised several small portable rock-crushers. These are placed on strong platform cars, and are driven by motors, obtaining power from the overhead trolley wire.
All along the lines of roads are scattered masses of old Belgian blocks, shattered concrete, and broken stone. This
COURTESY OF THE AITOMBRE
END VIEW OF FLOORLESS BRIDGE FOR AUTOS,
material is all utilized for ballasting the ing on for three years. During this time new roads.
there has been no interference with railThe crushers are placed over the center
road traffic in either direction. The new of the track, and deposit the ballast bridge is only one of many improvements where it is most needed and in the re- which, when all are completed, will required quantities. They are moved for- duce the schedule time between Washward as the work progresses. The crush- ington and New York by half an hour. ers are fed from each side of the track and keep several men busily employed.
With the aid of these portable “ballasters,” the roadbeds are very rapidly Barge Pumping Station and cheaply made ready for heavy traffic
. I working out its reclamation proj: . This is only another illustration of the ects motto, “Necessity is the mother of in- adopting various methods to put vention.”
water on the land for irrigation pur
PENNSYLVANIA LINES NEW BRIDGE OVER SUSQUEHANNA RIVER. Located between Havre de Grace and Perryville. One of the many improvements now under way which are expected to shorten the distance between New York and Washington by over half an hour. The bridge is double-tracked; length, 4, 154 ft.; clear height above mean low tide at draw-span,
Big Bridge Finished poses. The engineers have been investi
gating the conditions in North Dakota THE Pennsylvania Railroad's for some time with a view to undertak
bridge over the Susquehanna river, ing irrigation, but owing to the topobetween Perryville and Havre de Grace, graphy of the country, have been unable is one of the finest examples of modern to find any feasible projects for a gravity bridge engineering. Massive stone piers system. Three pumping projects will
, support a steel superstructure 4,154 feet however, soon be taken up, known as the in length and containing 10,000 tons of "Buford-Trenton Project," the "Willisthe metal. Eighteen spans are found in ton Project," and the “Nesson Project.” this distance-eight of 260 feet each, An interesting feature of this developseven of 200 feet, two of 197 feet, and ment is the proposed utilization of the one draw-span of 280 feet. This last is great lignite beds which extend over so arranged as to give two waterways, large areas of the State. Lignite is each of about 100 feet clear.
a soft coal which has the distinguishThe piers rest on solid foundations. ing feature of air-slaking. It outcrops Deep drilling beneath the river's bed in various places along the Missouri was necessary in many instances to river, and can be mined, and possireach rock bottom.
bly delivered, for considerably less than The work of construction has been go- $1 a ton.
house is larger than the old, as additions requiring new material were made.
Oil vs. Dust SEVERAL years ago
the idea of oiling roadways, to lay the dust, was originated in California ; but it took the energy and push of the Central States to put this method to all practi
cal tests. Experiments As CLEAR A View BEHIND AS IN FRONT.
were made with differAbsence of dust due to oiling of the road. Auto is here running at 15 miles an hour ent kinds of oil, and the over same road as shown in the other photo-the Observatory Road, near Cincinnati, Ohio.
outcome favored the use
of a certain asphaltum Net Saves Scorchers oil, a crude product of the oil wells about
Lexington, Kentucky. This accomplishes A WIRE net near Monte Carlo has
the best results as a preventive of dust saved the lives of several reckless
and mud and as a preservative of the cyclists and autoists. A road down a
highway, on macadam roads. Moreover, steep hill abruptly leads across a chasm
the cost is moderate. spanned by a narrow bridge. The net
Cincinnati was the first large city to catches the scorchers at the turn as deftly adopt this new street improvement, and as does that in a circus tent.
the roads of that city and vicinity are
now in better condition than they have House Travels Far
ever been before. The accompanying il
lustrations give some idea of the results
moved into a RECENTLY a
accomplished. Unlike water sprinkling, stone house in Massachusetts he the oil is applied only once each year, had occupied in Michigan three years and it hardens the road instead of conbefore. Stone by stone the building was verting the dust into soft mud.-L. W. demolished, and rebuilt in precisely its FAHNESTOCK. original manner. A11 stones, except those in the body of the house, were numbered, and the corresponding arch or pier lettered. To insure that no mistake should be made in reassembling the parts, photographis were taken before demolition. Thirty-five men were employed in the work, and 190 cars were required for the shipments. The total distance that the materials were hauled was 1,200 miles. The cost of the complete operation
RAISING CLOUDS OF Dust.
An automobile running at ten miles an hour over an un-oiled road. Compare with was $30,000. The new
other photo taken after road was oiled.
By Gilson Gardner
H this dust! Where What keeps it up? The movement of does it all come from?" the air. It is always falling. Some of sighs the tidy house- it lodges, and some is again swept into keeper. “I'm sure there the stream of moving currents. But will be no dust in heav
ust is found to take the place of
that which finds a permanent resting No doubt she is place in old church towers, or the dust
right. But there is no rag of the housekeeper. And it is the getting away from the dust while she origin of this new and ever present dust remains on earth.
that first interested and puzzled the men It might be supposed there would be of science. some place for instance, amid the fresh It has finally been concluded that part white snows of St. Bernard Pass in of the dust comes from the burning up Switzerland where there would be ab- of meteors. These fragments of other solutely no dust. But the men of science earth systems wander around in space tell us otherwise. In fact the celebrated until they happen to come within the orM. Jung collected snow at this very spot,
bit of our earth, when they set up a great 8,100 feet above the level of the sea ; and
friction with the air, and appear for an when he had evaporated some fifteen lit- instant as shooting stars. The metals ers of water produced by melting the which they contain become fused; and snow, he found a very considerable quan- then they drop to our earth, sometimes tity of dust; and this dust proved to be as good-sized stones, but more often as minute particles of iron!
the fine dust which is found in "pure" Another scientist, M. Nordenskjold, snows, in hail, and in rain water. in search of some place where dust would Practically all atmosphere contains not be found contaminating the air, ex
some iron dust. Other metals, such as amined the greatest fall of snow in the cobalt, nickel, etc., are found, but iron memory of man (1871) at Stockholm, is the most common and plentiful of the and likewise found a dust which proved metals in atmospheric dust. Some salt to be metallic iron. Fearing that this is caught up in the evaporating waters of might have come from neighboring roofs the sea ; there are carbon, calcium, silica, or chimneys, he had his brother examine and clay in ordinary dust. But the iron the snow in a desolate plain surrounded and cobalt and nickel are the only by the forests of Finland. The black metals which are supposed to be of expowder proved to be there also, and to be tra-terrestrial origin. the same.
Ordinary city dust is made up of about The fact is, the earth's atmosphere three quarters cinders. The other quareverywhere teems with dust. In the ter is organic matter. This means vegcities there is more than in the country; etable and animal, living and dead. For but not so much more as might be sup- —unpleasant as is the thought—the dust posed. It has been estimated that the contains its share of germs. Rains and weight of dust suspended in the air above snows reduce the quantity of dust in the an ordinary city block is in the neighbor- air. In Paris it was found that an eight hood of 33 pounds. At this rate the days' dry spell increased the quantity dust overhanging such cities as New of dust in the air to three or four times York, Pittsburg, or Chicago would weigh the normal amount, which is from 6 to, several tons.
8 milligrams to a cubic meter of air.
Supposedly pure rain water will pick up striking case was presented more recentdust from the air, so that a liter will ly when cinders from the great Chicago yield all the way from 23 to 421 milli- fire of 1871 arrived at the Azores forty grams of dust.
days after that catastrophe. In the last Dust will travel marvelous distances century Europe experienced what was in the air. On the 7th of February, 1863, known as the celebrated “dry fog," there was a rain of sand in the Canary which lasted for three months, and was Islands, this sand coming from the Sa- found to have been caused by a volcanic hara desert 200 miles away. A more eruption in Iceland.