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trial nine horses, three to a plow, with for the night work. In drawing two or three drivers and three boys, did the three mowing machines, by means of a work at a total cost of eight dollars and continuous pole connection, the three matwenty-eight cents or at the rate of three chines pull with remarkable regularity dollars and sixty-eight cents per acre. By taking the corners without missing or steam power the total cost of plowing the overlapping and cutting clear swaths in same area amounted to a total of nine the stretches. dollars and eight cents or at four dollars Detailed enumeration of the many other and eight cents per acre, and with the performances of the agricultural motor gasoline motor the cost totalled four dol- would but show its perfect adaptation for lars and forty-four cents or at one dollar the work and its marked economy. With and ninety-seven cents per acre. Re- ease it pulls after it two self binders, capitulating, the steam cost highest, being with which it cuts and binds, in ten slightly over four dollars per acre. hours, nineteen acres of heavy wheat, Horses were next at forty cents an acre using in the work eighteen gallons of less and last was gasoline costing but gasoline. In one case, with a couple of slightly over half that of horses and not similar self binders, it cut fifteen acres of half so much as steam. In the case of the oats in four hours, travelling during the gasoline motor, twenty-four cents were entire time at six miles per hour. With needed for oil and two dollars and fifty- one of these motors in use a Belgian two cents for gasoline. For plowing pur farmer harvested one hundred acres of poses a three-furrowed plow is invariably wheat in two days and one night, the used, except in heavy clay soils, where a motor never stopping except to take on couple of furrows prove sufficient.

fuel and oil the binders. In another test, A few examples will show the working oats were cut at an expense of twentyquality of the new motor in amateur four cents per acre for gasoline and oil, hands. In one instance three and a quar- figures which show work done at less ter acres of clay soil were plowed in four than half the cost of doing it where hours and thirteen minutes, the furrow horses are used. being seven and a half inches deep. In When not required in the fields, its this work eight gallons of paraffin were usefulness is shown elsewhere. With the needed, being two gallons to the acre. drive wheels disconnected from the moOn another occasion, six acres were tor, by a friction clutch, it become a staplowed in eight hours with a three-fur- tionary engine, driving the largest size row plow; and twelve acres in seventeen of threshing machine with ease equal to hours. twenty-five gallons of gasoline that of the steam engine and at half the being used in doing the last job. To expense; cutting the farmer's straw into plow six acres in a day of eight hours is chaff at a rate of a ton in forty-five mina regular performance, the same work utes, and at a saving of two dollars per requiring a two-horse team six days on day; breaking stones; and in general the same heavy soil.

performing those duties ordinarily acHaving won its spurs in the plowing complished by the ponderous traction encompetition, the agricultural motor was gine. Compared with the traction engine, ready for other contests. Mowing or speed is its greatest advantage. In a test cutting hav and clover offered special in- with such an engine the agricultural ducements for trials. At these the En- motor drew its threshing machine into glish machine cut fifteen and three-quar- position and backed into its own positer acres in three and a half hours, pulling tion and was threshing, before the tractwo mowing machines, each cutting a tion engine had reached its proper locaswath six feet in width. The work re- tion. The threshing done, it drew the quired but six and a half gallons of gaso- machine behind it over the rural roads, line, which at American prices, would taking the grades over the railroad tracks mean but eight cents an acre for fuel. without apparent trouble. In one test, it drew three mowing ma- Of late the most novel uses to which it chines each cutting a swath six feet has been put are the cultivation of vinewide, and worked steadily for two days yards and the planting of potatoes and and one night, acetylene lights being used other tubers and roots. As the illustraunderbrush and rough places; in similar places its power, belted to a circular saw, has cut the season's firewood in a short time; again it is employed for churning butter and chopping roots.


On the road it has made continuous trips of three hundred miles at an average speed of six miles per hour, a faster speed not being possible because of the broad driving wheels, which, however,

can be replaced with narrower ones when AGRICULTURAL Motor Drawing A LAND CULTIVATOR, higher speeds are desired. In Mel

bourne, Australia, an agricultural motor, tion shows, when engaged in the plant belonging to a large estate, draws sevening of potatoes, it performs at one time ton loads to market at a four-mile an a three-fold duty, plowing a furrow in hour pace, and another, in the service of which the potatoes are to be planted, plac- a contractor, transports, by means of a ing the potatoes the required distance couple of wagons linked behind it, fifteen apart in this furrow and then covering hundred bricks, weighing five and a half them by turning another furrow. Two tons, from the brick yards to the depot at men perform the operation, one caring the rate of five miles per hour. for the motor and the other attending to Apart from its economy of fuel and opthe planter. Three and one-half acres of eration compared with horses, the agripotatoes per day are planted with ease. cultural motor possesses that all essenNot less interesting in vine culture is the tial requisite—speed—so paramount at use of cultivators for tilling the soil be- times in farming. In favorable spring tween the rows of vines and later the weather, grains should be sown as early drawing of a sprinkler between these as possible, yet, with horse-labor, days rows, thus protecting the vines against prolong themselves into weeks before all insects or cleansing the fruit with clear of the seeding is accomplished. With water before picking.

the motor, and its night and day ability, But the ingenious farmer, realizing the period of seeding is cut in two and that to make the agricultural motor often shortened more than this. And profitable, it must be kept in continual when harvest comes, grains are cut when service, has, in fulfilling this aim, intro- ripe, avoiding the necessity of leaving duced it to the most unexpected aspects portions standing until overripe or enof farm life. In forest lands it has served dangered by heavy storms. On Ameriin logging, pulling heavy logs through can farms, labor is scarce and in such



This machine is used in grape and hop culture.

cases the agricultural motor is a great boon, enabling the farmer to till immense areas without outside assistance. It is this quick work at important seasons that adds much value to the new motor.

Its worth being apparent, the question is whether farmers will quickly adopt such power machinery ? To them the gasoline motor is not new. Of late years the largest harvesting machinery house of the central states has been selling to the farmers upwards of four thousand gasoline engines each year, these machines being principally used in threshing and grinding grain. This acquaintance on the part of the agricultural MOTOR DRAWING THREE-Furrow Plow at A Speed of Four Miles per Hour. classes with gasoline

Each furrow is 10 inches wide and 6 inches deep. engines is sufficient to warrant a speedy introduction, when Dakotas will have bowed the knee to the the agricultural motor is once fairly pre- motor and the New England hillsides sented. Indications are that the intro- will have acknowledged its prowess. duction will be made soon and rapidly. There is, in the appearance of the agriWithin the last month the makers of the cultural motor at the present moment, a English machine have sold the patent reminder of the truth that most things rights of manufacture for the United come at their proper and appointed time. States and Canada and arrangements are Today, with the exhausting of fuel on being pushed for the securing of factory the farms, with the scarcity of help and sites and a publicity campaign has begun. with the necessity for fast work, the Should its progress prove as rapid as that motor is badly needed. Its predecessor, of the motor car, in another decade farm steam, having proved inefficient for such work will have undergone a revolution uses, is falling into disrepute, leavand our Kansas wheat fields will scarcelying free way for the gasoline or alcohol know the horse, the vast areas of the engine.



OW the myriad twinkling lights California. The photograph shows the of a large city would look to an lights of the two cities of Pasadena and astronomer twenty miles from Los Angeles, as they lie stretched out in

the earth, is shown in the ac- the valley below the mountain. At first companying remarkable photograph. glance even the practiced astronomer The picture was taken on a dark night might be excused for thinking it a phowith the famous Bruce photographic tograph of distant star clusters and telescope, located on Mount Wilson in misty groups of nebulae.


It is noticeable that the lights of Los caused by rapidly moving electric cars. Ang eles, fifteen miles away, are more The second photograph shows the brilliant than those of Pasadena, only same view by daylight. Pasadena looks nine miles from the base of the moun- almost microscopic, while Los Angeles, tain. This is due to the greater number lying on the horizon line, is scarcely to of arc lights used in the more distant be made out. On a clear day the sparkcity. The almost continuous lines of ling waters of the Pacific Ocean can be light in and between the cities are distinguished in the remote distance.

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