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feet apart, and a series of smaller cross- The removal of the last thirty or forty clitches, the depth and closeness of the per cent of water is the rock on which latter depending upon the character of producers lave inevitably wrecked. Folthe bog

Its surface cleared of debris lowing Nature's example, it has been and growing moss, and leveled, the bog thought that this can be done by heavy is ready for working. The mass of red- pressure; but, after countless attempts,

it has been found that what Nature can
do very efficiently in a hundred or a thou-
sand years cannot be done artificially in
a few hours. Experiments with pulver-
ized peat in hydraulic presses capable of
a pressure of several tons per square:
inch, have shown that the greatest reduc-
tion thus obtainable is from eighty to
sixty-three per cent of water. Extensive
operations in Germany, in which every
conceivable theory was given a thorough
trial, were no more successful. Drying
by pressure seems right in theory, but is

in fact impracticable. dish-black soil has first to be broken up The surest method is that of air-dryin such manner as to expose it to the ing, but it necessitates too large space and action of the air, an ordinary farm har- is too greatly dependent upon weather row sometimes serving for the purpose. conditions. A process that largely overA layer of from one to two inches, thus comes these difficulties, however, has loosened, air-dries under favorable cir- been found successful, on at least a cumstances in a few hours, reducing its moisture from eighty to forty per cent. In this partly dried condition it is ready for the final processes, and is gathered up, loaded on tram-cars, and taken to the factory.

With forty per cent of water, peat is not yet suitable for fuel. The drying process must be carried still further, and the loose particles must be bound together in a more compact and transportable form. At this point appears the real problem of peat-fuel production.

DRYING-RACKS For Machine Peat.


small scale. The crude peat is conveyed

. directly from the bog to the factory, and is there thoroughly broken up and macerated, then moulded into bricks about thirty inches long and laid on slatted pallets, which are passed outdoors again and stacked eight tiers high in drying-frames. These frames are skeleton, and admit the air and sun on all sides. Drying thus, much as building bricks are dried, the peat blocks are greatly condensed, and reduced in moisture from eighty to about thirty per cent. In handling, they break into irregular pieces, as coal, and in this form are ready for use.

A process which is fairly claimed to have demonstrated the practicability of peat-fuel production, is now in use in three of the leading peat-fields in Ontario, where excellent fuel is being produced on a commercially profitable basis, though as yet in limited quantities. The process, from its beginning, represents probably the most advanced ideas in peat

Peat-BRIQUETTING MACHINE. manufacture. By this method the crude

Capacity, 13 tons in 10 hours. peat is removed from the bog, which has been carefully drained and leveled, by an electrically driven excavating ma- tor is carried on the excavator, obtaining chine, which travels slowly up and down its current from heavily insulated transone or both sides of the area under re- mission wires which trail behind from a moval. A series of cutting teeth, set on central point in the field. Successive an endless chain, cut a thin slice of peat layers may thus be spread to the depth of from the edge of the strip, and elevate it six inches, air-drying to about forty per to the top and opposite side of the ma- cent of moisture in a few hours' time. chine, where a fast-revolving paddle- The surface layers are then taken up wheel divides it into particles and by a mechanical gatherer, loaded on elecshowers it over the surface of the bog tric tram-cars, and dumped in a stock thirty feet away. A 10-horse-power mo- pile at the factory. A disintegrating ma

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chine, fed through a hopper, breaks up a short blue flame; and, when well afire, the partially dried peat, thus destroying with a yellow glow and flame, giving out its minute plant cells, and empties it out an intense heat. It requires very little as a damp powder, which then passes on oxygen to sustain combustion, and will to the dryer, a heated cylinder thirty feet keep alive for ten or twelve hours, if

a long and three feet in diameter. The properly banked and draught checked.

mass of peat is twenty minutes in passing Peat makes no clinkers, but forms conthrough this cylinder, during which time siderable ash, though in a properly equipit is agitated by swiftly moving lifters; ped stove every portion of the fuel is and when it is discharged at the opposite consumed. As compared with other end, it is reduced to about fifteen per fuels, the calorific value is as follows: cent of moisture.

anthracite coal, 1.02; bituminous coal, The final step is shaping into market- 1.01 ; peat, 0.7; wood, 0.5. Peat has an able form. This is done in briquetting advantage over coal in a much smaller presses, by compressing punches working percentage of sulphur. in dies, with a pressure of twelve tons per The chief sphere for peat fuel will alsquare inch; the peat is expelled at the ways be in the home, where, for both rate of one hundred briquettes per min- heating and cooking purposes, it gives ute, each two inches long and about the excellent results. Whether or not it will same in diameter. Thirteen tons of ever be used extensively for steam-raisfinished fuel are produced by one of these ing, will depend upon the further progpresses in a ten-hour day, at a cost of ress made in its production. It has, howabout one dollar per ton.

ever, been already used very satisfacAnother process that has been experi- torily in a number of small manufacmented with to a small extent does away

tories, and has been fairly tested for railwith air-drying, the crude peat being dug

road use.

Heavy freight trains in Rusand stacked irrespective of weather con

sia have made hundred-mile runs with ditions. The dryers, which are fed from peat in their locomotives, in as good time this stock pile at any time or season, are

as with coal. In a test not long ago by steam-heated instead of dry-heated, and one of the western American roads, a it is claimed that by this system of steam

sixty-mile run, consuming 4,450 pounds drying the moisture may be reduced to of coal, was made in 2 hours 46 minutes ; ten per cent or less. It has not yet, how- under precisely the same conditions, the ever, been commercially tested.

run was niade in five minutes' less time, The manufactured peat in briquette using 5,100 pounds of peat. For railform is of a dark brown color, sometimes road needs, however, the chief difficulty showing a polish on the surface. The lies in the supply. One of the Canadian tar, resin, paraffine, and other oils of the roads, whose lines traverse a vast peat natural peat, act, when warmed in the area, investigated the possibility of securpressing process, as a binder, and tend ing a supply of fuel equal to one thouto keep the cylindrical briquettes intact. sand tons per day, and found that an outThey are apt, however, if much handled, put of such proportions would be quite to break, and for this reason are chiefly impossible by any process involving as adapted to local market use. There is in much hand labor as those now in lise. this and other respects a great divergence The future progress of the industry in the quality of various peat fuels, ac- will without doubt establish some means cording to the composition of the bog of producing the fuel rapidly and cheaply peat from which they are made, the pro- enough to put it on a commercial footing portions of carbon, etc., varying consid- in the national market. Nature has superably. Peat from the bog may differ plied abundant and widely distributed from another as coal from one mine may material; the way to use it can hardly rediffer from that mined elsewhere. main long in doubt.

In practical use the heating value of Of other uses of peat besides fuel, the the best peat fuel is about two-thirds that most common in America are as a fertiof anthracite coal. It burns at first with lizer, and in making cardboard.


And His Technical

By Henry M.Hyde


ten years later the firm was occupying a brick building in Liberty, the county

seat, and employing eighty workmen. LD man Parker pushed back And there were plenty of the green Parthe little black silk skull-cap ker wagons, with the red wreath on the

which was the symbol of his dash, still hauling corn to market over authority in the shops, sniffed scornfully, the dirt roads of Liberty county. Noand beckoned to Cutler, his assistant, who body talked foolishness about technical walked across the little office and leaned education in those days. over his chief's chair.

Then the bicycle craze came along, "The trouble with us, Cut,” sneered and Parker had been persuaded to organthe old man, with a nasty, gutturalize a stock company and turn his big chuckle, “is that we never learned to play plant to the manufacture of wheels. The lawn tensis. Listen to this letter:

new stockholders had offered to make the “Mr. Maginn played left guard on the old man President and put Cutler in as

“ Varsity football eleven, and was also second or third Vice. But neither of the champion lawn tennis player and

them was willing. heavyweight boxer of his year-quite an

"No," Parker told them, firmly. “Cut unusual record in the athletic line.'

and I'll stay out in the shops. We know Cutler laughed in a dry, unpleasant the men, and the men know us. You can way. “I wonder what those Indians out get somebody else to wear the silk hats.” in the foundry will do to Willie when he When the Parker "bike” presently took goes out there with his white flannel a high place with the trade and the big panties on?” he said. "Have they de- plant had to be twice enlarged to keep up cided on him ?”

with the demand, they both felt fully jus"Yeh," answered Parker. "He'll be

tified. And the directors acknowledged here next Monday to take hold.”

their debt by passing resolutions of thanks and adding a thousand dollars to

the salary of each of them. It had been a bitter day for Parker During this period a few young cubs and his assistant when the directors of from the technical schools were put on the Gray Ghost Automobile Company de- the pay-roll in subordinate positions. cided that they must have a new super

They did well enough in their fussy way, intendent. The old man could remember but the old chaps always looked at thein the day when he first hung out his sign- patronizingly, with never a suspicion that John Parker-Wagon Maker-over the their own place at the head of the shops door of the little one-storied frame was being threatened. shop in Ridott, next to the grain elevator. “Nothing like having practical men at Cutler was a boy then, learning his trade. the top,” Parker said more than once, as They had made mighty good wagons, he and Cutler, on their way home, looked too. That was proved by the fact that back at the great row of factories behind

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them. “Test-tubes and micrometers and of Directors, and Cutler was gracefully fancy machines for findin' the maximum shelved under the title of First Vicestrain, may be all right; but they ain't President. nothin' like learnin' a thing by doin' it, Then the new managers wrote to the eh Cut?"

presidents of half a dozen great techniThen they would turn in together at cal schools, asking them to recommend the little saloon on the corner; and a general superintendent for the Gray Casey, the old bartender with the long, Ghost Automobile Company. They had

, white beard, would set a couple of beers even changed the name of the old comon the bar without a word spoken. pany. That was the last and most cutting

“To the works and their daddy!” Cut- stroke of all. ler would whisper, as he emptied his Both Parker and Cutler felt as does glass.

a mother when her only son calmly rele“To the factory and its godfather!" gates her to the rear and puts in first Parker would answer, wiping the foam place a younger and fresher woman. from his shaggy, gray moustache. Consequently, when the young fellows in

It was a foolish little ceremony the control of the company did old Parker two went through two or three times a the tardy courtesy of consulting him as week.

to which of the engineers recommended A man may never feel a passion for a for the position should be made General woman, and yet know what it is to be in Superintendent, they found him in no love. And “wedded to his business” is- mood to look at the situation fairly. And occasionally-more than a figure of when, over his sullen protest, they sespeech.

lected "Billy" Maginn, Cornell, '98, for

the post, the old man made small effort to When destiny punctured the inflated conceal how sore he felt. Maginn was tire of the bicycle business, the Parker said to be an expert in internal-combuscompany was a trifle slow in finding it- tion motors and to have had experience self. Perhaps it would be fairer to say in shop practice and in machine design; that the two men in the active manage

but what aroused Parker's scorn was his ment of the factory were reluctant to ad

record as a lawn tennis champion. mit the facts. A good many of the old "I can't help wonderin', Cut," he restockholders had died or retired, and peated to his assistant, "what Mike Nagle there were several youngsters on the and that gang of devils in the foundry'll board of directors. They raised the do to Willie and his white panties?” question of making automobiles promptly enough, but Parker and Cutler dodged it. Parker and Cutler were far too loval Meanwhile they were both trying to get to the business and far too honorable, a thorough understanding of the new personally, to do anything consciously, craze.

which would make the place of the new “Chassis and tonneau and garage and superintendent any harder than it must chauffeur!” Cutler burst out complain- necessarily be. But, in some occult way, ingly one day. “My Lord! It'd take a the feeling of bitterness and resentment dago to know what it's all about."

which filled them both spread rapidly “ "Don't worry, Cut,” Parker put in, through the shops; and when “Billy" consolingly. “It'll never go in this coun- Maginn took command of the plant on a try.”

Monday morning, he was facing a seethBut it did “go,” and the whole bottom ing mutiny, which was ready to burst dropped out of the bicycle industry. forth at the slightest cause. Presently a special meeting of the stock- Maginn brought two young assistants holders was called to consider the situa- with him. They were installed in a little tion. Parker had paid little attention to room, off his office, with a lot of testthe financial department of the business. tubes, retorts, and other scientific appaHe and his friends were outvoted at the ratus. For the first two weeks, Maginn meeting, and, much against his will, the hardly went outside the room. He called old man was made Chairman of the Board in the foremen, one after another, and

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