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kick at his tormentor, but it was stopped "He's all right!" Parker and Cutler by the big boot of Mike Nagle, the fore- found themselves cheering with the rest man, whose red head was bristling with of the three thousand. the joy of a fair fight.

“Be gob!” said Nagle, with profane emphasis, "if he can't, afther this, I'll When the noon whistle blew, Superfind a lad that kin.”

intendent Maginn came up to the office “Billy” Maginn had rolled down his in the main building. Old man Parker white shirt-sleeves, and was turning to jumped up to shake hands with him. go back into the foundry. Nagle glanced "You are all right from now, too,” he at him, then' waved a hairy, freckled hand said. “But I tell you, things did lcok up at the excited faces looking down pretty nasty.” from the windows.

“Yes," said "Billy" Maginn. "It "What's the matter wid the new supe?" seemed to be up to me to đemonstrate he yelled.

the value of a technical education.”

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New Path into Gotham Harbor

By Nick. J. Quirk


O navigators, much 40 feet deep at ebb tide. This gigantic anxiety in approach- undertaking has been in progress nearly ing or leaving New six years, requiring the use of powerful York will disappear dredges and suction pumps; and all that when the new Am- remains to complete the plans is the erecbrose Channel, now tion of bases and structures for lanterns being dredged by the and the installation of lighting apparatus.

United States Gov- Contracts are now being closed for a sysernment, is in service.

tem for illumination that promises to The main ship channel now being used eclipse in brilliance any port-entrance in by most vessels at the great gateway of the world, on account of which the pilots America, is so narrow and tortuous that already call it "Ambrose Boulevard”—a with varying currents it is a difficult task name that will probably become more for even the most expert pilots to guide popular as its fame spreads among the their floating charges through in safety, mariners. particularly at night; and the many com- This marine boulevard will be the most plaints, coupled with persistent demands serviceable of its kind, having practically of the shipping interest, for better facili- but one deviation from a straight line, ties, were the despair of the Lighthouse and sufficient capacity in width and depth Board. One official of the Board de- to accommodate the largest ships planned clared, “Nothing short of a picket fence or likely to be planned for many years. with a lantern hanging on every stick, Moreover, it will greatly improve faciliwould satisfy the grumblers."

ties for vast and steadily increasing ocean The passage of the Omnibus Light- traffic by bringing the docks of New York house bill by Congress in July, to cover five miles nearer to the sea. These adlighting expense, was hastened by the prospect of embarrassment when the great express steamers Mauretania and Lusitania, now building at Wallsend-onTyne and Clydebank, will be in commission next fali. As these ships will draw 3712 feet, when fully loaded, the comparatively shallow depth of thirty feet in the present waterway will preclude the passage through this entrance of vessels approaching the mammoth size of the new liners. Even now, the danger of grounding is a continuous menace to large craft, some of which dare not load to their full capacity and are obliged to regulate their trips with the flood tide to lessen the chance of such accident.

The official title “Ambrose Channel” has been given the new waterway, which Map Showing LOCATION OF AMBROSE Channel, Prowill be 8 miles long, 2,000 feet wide, and

See also Frontispiece illustration in this number.




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BEFORE LAUNCHING, This picture shows, by comparison with surrounding objects, the immense size of these latest marine leviathans.

vantages making for safety and economy approaching New York at night will be indicate the complete abandonment of treated to a scene of beauty at once strikthe old channel—a grateful relief to the ing and startling—a picture which will mariner and shipper, whose anxiety in require but little imagination to place it darkness, fog, and storm could not be among the kaleidoscopic eye-feasts of the measured in gold. When fully equipped “Arabian Nights” or Bellamy's dream of with buoys, beacons, and the elaborate, “Looking Backward.” He will see yet simple lighting system that is pro- lane of light formed by red lantern posed, the new marine lane will be trav- buoys and flanked by the harmonious ilersed as easily at night as in daytime. lumination of Coney Island, Manhattan,

In 1907, the ocean-traveling stranger and other beaches on the right, while to


the left an endless stream of lights, show the port, will greatly benefit navigation the vessels passing between the observer by expediting the tremendous traffic now and the row of white lanterns standing passing through this funnel for the ships out in bold relief from the contrasting of the world, and will reduce the strain gloom of Sandy Hook or the Staten Is- on the men responsible for the safety of land shore.

hundreds of thousands of lives and countThe floating gas-buoys marking the less treasure in the cargoes entrusted to boundaries of the channel will be an- their keeping. These pilots fully earn chored evenly along the sides, forming their living, if strenuous endeavor counts parallel lines of fire for a distance of for anything-being continually exposed cight miles-intermittent red flashes to to dangers of which the landsman knows starboard, toward Brooklyn; and fixed nothing, and which the passenger, in his white lights to port, or toward Staten Is- comfortable cabin, little realizes. They land. Between these rows of red and are the fellows who stay out in their frail white, the visitor will steam to reach The schooners when every other craft runs to Narrows and the harbor beyond.

shelter, facing arctic rigor when masts To the navigator on the bridge, these are big as barrels with ice and ropes are guiding lights will be clearer than street like tree trunks; and, answering the bluesigns to the stranger; for, with other light bidding of a "liner," fight their way great lights high above the water, light- in a rowboat through heavy seas to climb ships and range lanterns as arranged by "Jacob's ladder," in spite of slamming Colonel Roselle, the engineer in charge smashes against steel walls, putting to at Tompkinsville—he will constantly shame the thrill of the flying trapeze. know his position and confidently steer They sometimes fail, as the records testihis course.

fy to the long toll of deaths levied among The act of Congress carries an appro- them, eight or more being killed every priation of $321,000, and provides for a year. lightship well off the sea end, to cost not Here seems to be danger enough for more than $115,000. This will give the the most extravagant lover of adventure! pilot his bearings from the outside to the The chief risk, however, is not in climbentrance of the channel; and, steaming ing iceberg-like ships' sides or boarding past this vessel, a new lighthouse on vessels in storms from a dancing cockleStaten Island will be sighted. Proceed

shell rowboat, but in the ever-present ing to “The Bend,” marked by range lan- peril of being run down. This nerveterns, and passing Romer Shoal, the ship racking suspense is everlastingly with will bear northeast, with the well-known them in fog and darkness, lying, as they Sandy Hook light and North Hook bea- must, in the track of steamers-squarely con dead astern, until abreast of the gas- in the track, too, or else they will pass tank vessel on the West Bank; then, pick- unseen. ing up the beacon on Craven Shoal, the The bridge of an ocean liner is especiship steams past Swinburne Island to the ally interesting at night, when the reshoal which marks the north end of this sponsibility for the safety of three new waterway.

thousand lives weighs most heavily and The lighthouse at Richmond on Staten the darkness lends an added peril. The Island, will be visible thirty miles at sea mechanism of the great engines forcing and will cost $100,000; the two range eight hundred feet of steel through the lanterns and their structures at The Bend water at twenty-five knots, is wonderful will cost $12,000; moving the North to contemplate ; and the ingenious deHook beacon and cost of gas-tank vessel, vices for steering are little less than mar$15,000. The lantern and stone beacon velous. on Craven Shoal will take $20,000, and The Mauretania is by long odds the $10,000 will be expended for a tempo- heaviest portable object in the world, it rary structure while the North I look weighing 45.000 tons, while its extreme beacon is being moved.

length renders it extremely sensitive to This passageway, so generously plan- the action of winds and currents. This ned and broad enough for the shipping of steel hull nearly one-seventh of a mile









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160 21 8 24.1 1.154 740 57 6 27 000 8.000 14 25 42 42 23,000 37,500 23.5 56 23.000 18.000 16.08 49 28.500 28.000 19.50



der Grosse La Provence.

706 72
627 65
725 75.6
672.6 72


19.100 30,000 23




long, is under such instant control that it pulsion, the latter operating four screws can be readily guided to right or left by to obtain the railway speed of thirty the pressure of a single finger.

statute miles per hour. Perhaps the most surprising thing the For purposes of comparison, the follandsman will notice is to find the wheel- lowing table of dimensions, speed, etc, man standing in the darkness of the pilot- of the principal steamships built in the house behind drawn blinds, steering the last one hundred years, will be found of course directed by the pilot outside on the interest and value: bridge. This is necessary to avoid disturbing the pilot's vision and the possible Steamships Built Since 1807 distraction of the wheelman from his real business of undivided attention to signals and the compass. The dial of the latter is illuminated by a single electric lamp shaded in all other directions; and the man at the helm might be located in



Great Eastern the bowels of the ship, so far as other (paddle & screw)


19.000 30.000 22.01 matters are concerned.

Deutschland.. The development of the steamship is

Minnesota... of absorbing interest; and the tremen

28,500 28.000 19.50

Kaiser Wilhelm dous strides of improvement between

52.6 30.000 40,000 23 5 Fulton's Clermont, in 1807, and the new

Adriatic .

25,000 47.000 19 Cunard express steamers for 1907, are Carmania (triple

19,524 21,000 20.50

screw turb. str.), amazing to the student of marine engi- Mauretania (quadneering. The practicability of the latter

ruple screws, 790

43,000 70,000 25

turbine str.).....] enormous vessels has been made possible by modern methods of working steel, the use of pneumatic and electric tools, and The 20-knot Atlantic liner of twenty the invention of the Parsons turbine en- years back, displaced 10,500 tons; the 22gine. The recently launched Mauretania knot vessel, ten years ago, 18,000 tons ; and Lusitania are each 269 times as large the 23-knot German flyer of five years as the Clermont, and will steam farther ago, 26,000 tons; and to reach 25-knots, in one day than the latter could in a it is necessary to increase the displaceweek. The horse-power has been multi- ment to 38,000 tons, notwithstanding the plied 3,000 times in the new ships, and comparative lightness of turbine engines they will carry 270 times as much freight. as compared with the weight of those of This represents the wonderful increase the reciprocating type. in speed and carrying capacity of one Since the Britannia of 1840, built for hundred years' progress in steamship the Cunard Line, the speed has multiplied building.

only threefold, but the power has inThey will be veritable marine sky- creased nearly one hundred times. The scrapers, with the equipment and luxu- coal consumption, however, is only about ries of the latest types of hotel and office nine times greater, owing to higher econbuildings, containing all known devices omy and shorter period of voyage. The making for convenience and comfort, little Britannia was 207 feet long, 34 feet from curling tongs in milady's cabin-de- beam, and 24 feet 4 inches deep. She luxe, to passenger elevators connecting had a displacement of 1,154 tons, horsevarious decks.

power 740, and cargo capacity of 225 For two years past, the construction tons. She was registered to carry 115 of these ships has aroused more attention cabin passengers, no second, third, or than any similar enterprise since the fourth class being thought of at that time. launch of Brunel's celebrated Great East- She made her first trip from Liverpool to ern. The interest is threefold, embrac- Boston in 14 days 8 hours, carrying 65 ing, as it does, the largest vessels ever re- passengers. Charles

Charles Dickens, in the alized or planned, the swiftest merchant- opening chapter of "American Notes," nien, and the application of turbine pro- humorously described the stateroom oc

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