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cupied by himself and wife, in 1842– ((lescribing the maiden trip of the Great "the pleasantest and most facetious and Eastern) and the memoranda of the travcapital contrivance possible," to have had cler of 1907, particularly if the latter has which one inch longer "would have been negotiated the shores of America from quite a disagreeable and deplorable state the deck of a new leviathan, and if he is of things.”
fortunate in reaching New York at night. It will be interesting to compare the The “Ambrose Channel” will be a domimpressions of dear old Dickens with inant note in reply to the usual querythose of Jules Verne in “A Floating City" "How do you like America ?"
Making a World to Order
By René Bache
10 take the world apart degrees to spare, is adequate for the ex
and put it together perimental purposes in view; and, as for
est offspring of that sures of the earth's interior can be as wonderful mother-hen of science, the
nearly as possible reproduced, with a Carnegie Institution. A great building
view to studying the actual formation of on a hill in the outskirts of the city is
rocks and minerals. All minerals and now being prepared for the reception of rocks were at some time liquid; and, in the requisite plant, which, when the ap
order to accomplish the end sought, it is paratus is installed, will enable the ex
obviously necessary to liquefy them perts in charge to utilize for experimental purposes electrical and other energies far surpassing any such powers hitherto made available for human use.
It is desired to find out how the rocks that go to compose the crust of the earth were originally formed; and, in order to solve this problem, it is proposed to manufacture similar rocks artificially. To do this, of course, enormously high temperatures and equally tremendous pressures must be employed. For what is contemplated is nothing less than the cuunterfeiting, on a small scale, of the volcanic processes by which all rockstuffs were originally created.
The way in which this is to be accomplished is by employing electric furnaces, so modified that the substances fused in them may be subjected to great pressure. By such means a pretty fair imitation is obtained of the conditions under which rock-stuffs are thrown up from the bowels of the earth. Necessarily, the again, allowing them thereupon to cool pressure in the depths, far down beneath
and harden in various combinations. But the surface layer of the globe, is immense, there is no known kind of mineral subwhile the temperature far surpasses that stance that cannot be reduced to a liquid of the hottest part of the electric arc. by the use of sufficient electricity; and Nevertheless, the heat of the electric fur- hence the chief thing essential in the connace, which will cause asbestos to flow templated work is to provide an equiplike water, and still have several hundred ment for the generation of electricity in enormous quantities, with suitable de- be reduced to a liquid in a vessel of lime. vices for concentrating and handling the Nearly all rocks, however, become Auid energy evolved.
at the temperature of molten platinumWhen, in the manner described, vol- though lime, magnesia, and zircon do not canic conditions, involving almost incon- give way until 6,000 degrees is reached, ceivable pressures and well-nigh celestial in the hottest part of the arc. temperatures, are reproduced in the lab- Apparatus already secured by the Geooratory, great precautions have to be physical Laboratory-and temporarily intaken against accidents. For example, it stalled in the building of the L. S. Geo
INTERIOR OF GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY
should be realized that a pressure of not logical Survey, while waiting for the permore than 150 pounds to the square inch manent structure to be erected—has is used to propel the largest ocean steam- proved itself capable of developing ship. When, in the Carnegie establish- a temperature of 5,000 degrees Fahment, this is multiplied by twenty within renheit. That such tremendous heat the steel walls of what are known as cannot be measured by any ordinary "bomb furnaces," it is evident that a thermometer, goes without saying; but little carelessness, resulting in an explo- a special instrument is used for the sion, might cause disastrous results. purpose, far superior to any con
We are accustomed to use the term trivance of the kind in existence any"red hot" as expressing a very high tem- where else in the world. It records temperature. It means, as a matter of fact, peratures by the expansion of hydrogen about 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. “White gas; and its determinations are made perhot," of course, is a good deal hotter- manent and available for general use by something like 2.000 degrees. Iron can establishing a scale with fixed divisions be melted in a stone pot without injury to represented by the melting-points of the receptacle; and even platinum, which various metals, arranged at convenient has a melting point remarkably high, can intervals.
of an inch
This he complishes by melting pure quartz crystal in a thin graphite box inside of an electric furnace, under 500 pounds to the square inch, utilizing an alternating current to produce a heat of over 2,000 degrees.
Ordinary glass melts at 700 degrees; quartz glass will stand 2,000 degrees. In a quartz-glass vessel, gold, copper, or silver may be melted, or even distilledthat is to say, vaporized—without injuring the receptacle. If a window of the material were put into a fireproof steel
safe, and the latter were exposed to the RIPPLE Marks of an Ancient Beach Preserved in Stone. fiercest flames, the safe would suffer Showing nature's work in the formation of
greater damage than the window. Comsedimentary rocks.
mon glass breaks with heat because it exIn trying to reproduce by artificial pands; but quartz glass expands almost means different kinds of rocks, a begin- not at all; and hence cold water will not ning is being made with the simplest break it if poured over it when it is white ones, naturally. This is an entirely new
hot. What a material for the lamp-chimdeparture in scientific investigation, and neys of the future, to be sure ! it is necessary to start with what is least Another point of interest about quartz complex. Accordingly, for one of the glass is that it transmits freely the ultrainitial experiments, feldspar has been
voilet rays of light, to which ordinary picked out as a suitable substance. It is glass is almost entirely opaque. Thus it composed of quartz, lime, and alumina
is very superior to the latter as material all three of them simple and common
for lenses of photographic cameras, givthings in nature. The problem is to mix ing sharper images;
and by its aid astronthem together and form counterfeit feld
omers should be able to extend much
further than hitherto their observations spar.
Quartz (which is silica) is about the only mineral that is found pure in nature. Obviously, then, it was a first-rate kind of stuff with which to begin. Dr. Arthur L. Day, who is in charge of the Geophysical Laboratory, has been working with quartz in his electric furnaces; and incidentally he has made quite a wonderful discovery-nothing less, in fact, than a process by which quartz glass can be successfully manufactured. The importance of this discovery may be judged from the circumstance that the substance in question, hitherto obtained only in small globules, is literally worth its weight in gold. :
Out of these globules, fused together, small vessels and even lenses have been made ; but Doctor Day, by the employment of the high temperatures and pressures he has at command, has succeeded in turning out plates of quartz glass, beautifully clear and almost entirely free
ONE OF THE LABORATORIES IN WHICH NATURE MANUfrom bubbles, six inches long by two inches wide and three-quarters
Volcano of Izalco, Salvador, known as the "Light
house of Central America."