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forced up

ually cooled down to its present condi-
tion, the mineral substances composing
the planet must at some time have been
pretty well mixed together. How then,
in the process of cooling, did they come
to separate, so that we find in one place
masses of marble, in another place
granite, and so on? It is a rather puzzling
question-one of the most important
questions, in fact, that confront the ex-
perts of the Carnegie establishment. So
far as they have gone, they are inclined
to think that, after the first thin crust of
the globe had hardened, liquid rock-
stuffs from below
through weak spots, and that the masses
thus extruded, being of different com-
positions, formed rocks of many dif-
ferent kinds of one kind in one locality,
of another kind in another.

Granite is one of the most familiar of
rocks. Some day the experts may try
to make it artificially ; but certainly not
for a good while yet. It is too complex,

and for this reason presents too difficult a on the spectra of distant stars. But for problem. Tiny crystals of many colors its expensiveness—for it is likely to con- and textures, from bright quartz to tinue to be extremely dear-it would feldspar, contribute to its make-up, with doubtless soon replace common glass iittle flakes of mica scattered through. wherever heat-resistance was wanted. It would be much easier to manufacture

To return, however, to the Geophysical marble, which is only carbonate of lime. Laboratory, it may be said that, the earth Marble is a limestone rock which has unhaving been originally molten, and grad- dergone metamorphosis under conditions



Its grip has the strength of four locomotives.

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of heat and pressure. These conditions get at the bottom of the puzzle. Oxide could be imitated in the electric furnace, of aluminum sometimes crystallizes as exposing lime at a high temperature to ruby, sometimes as sapphire, and somecarbonic acid gas.

times as plain, unornamental emery. . A good deal remains to be ascertained . Why? Nobody can say, but an effort about the effects of steam, under high will be made to ascertain. And, speakpressure, upon ores of the valuable ing of volcanoes, at what temperatures metals. Indeed, one may say that

are minerals of various kinds separated nothing is known as yet on the subject. out of the stuff ejected by burning When the desired information has been secured, something at least will have been learned of the secret of the rich deposits which contribute so much to the wealth of this country. The ores of all these metals were at one time dissolved water. There is copper, for example. Water evidently had much to do with the making of the great copper deposits. But in what way? Nobody can


A contribution from the sky to the crust of our planet. Found at Bacubirito, the things that the Geo

Mexico, by Professor Ward, of Rochester, N. Y. physical Laboratory is anxious to determine, if possible.

mountains, so as to cool in the forms of The experts will try to make precious different species of rocks? It is a quesstones—diamonds, rubies, sapphires, em- tion to which as yet no answer can be eralds, and other kinds of gems. Not for given. commercial purposes, however. It is a When the matter comes to be conscientific problem, pure and simple, that sidered, it is really astonishing how they are attacking. Microscopic dia- little we know about the way in which the monds have already been produced in the crust of the planet on which we dwell electric furnace by Crookes and De Mois- was formed. We recognize, here and san, and quite recently real rubies have there, various kinds of rocks; but we been crystallized from corundum by simi- have no very definite notion of the way in lar means—worthless, alas! by reason of which they were made. Many useful their poor color and the thinness of the metals we dig out of the earth, but we crystals. But the Geophysical Labora- cannot tell how they got there. In fact, tory has resources of energy and appara- what we know seems to be only a small tus at its command such as nobody else fraction of what there is to be known. has hitherto possessed ; it may yet smash We are only on the edge of acquaintance the gem market to "smithereens” by dis- with the subject necessarily so interestcoveries novel and spectacular.

ing to all mankind, and for its further Diamonds are known to be a volcanic illumination we must look to the scienproduct. So much is certain; but the tists in Washington who have newly manner of their formation is in dispute. taken up this original and picturesque The Carnegie folks are going to try to

branch of investigation.


New Marvels in Physics

By Ben Winslow



HAT the average

Q.-Why do the inhabitants of cold student knows climates eat fat? How would you find, rectly after his first experimentally, the relative quantities of quarter in the study heat given off when equal weights of sulof physics, would phur, phosphorus, and carbon are thormake very dry read- oughly burned? ing; but what he knows incorrectly is

A.-An inhabitant of cold climates eats extremely interest- fat principally because he can't get no ing. Probably not lean, also because he wants to raise its

more than one stu- temperature. But if equal weights of: dent out of twenty, when he passes sulphur, phosphoorus, and carbon are into the preliminary study of physics, burned in his neighborhood, he will give escapes the danger of too little off eating quite so much. The relative knowledge. He gains but a smat- quantities of eat given off will depend tering of the subject; learns a few upon how much sulphur etc. is burnt and primary principles that are

new and

how near it is burned to him. If I knew strange to him ; and straightway falls into these facts, it would be an easy sum to the belief that his knowledge is equal to find the answer. any occasion. Even before he has fairly entered upon the elementary stages of

Q.-An iceberg floats with one milthe study, he begins to put his new

lion tons of ice above the water line; how knowledge to work. To what extent he many tons are below the water line? can go wrong, is shown by the following

A.-The iceberg floats on top because specimens of examination answers. These answers were taken from fifty or more

it is lighter, hence no tons are below the

water line. Another reason is that an examination papers written by first year students, on acoustics, light, and heat. Of iceberg cannot exceed one million tons

in weight; hence if this much is above course, no one paper contained all the blunders; and in fact, many of the papers

water, none is below. Ice is exceptional

to all other bodies except bismuth. All were practically perfect.

other bodies have one thousand and Q:-What are the conditions favorable ninety feet below the surface and two for the formation of dew?

feet extra for every degree centigrade. If it were not for this, all fish would die,

P. S. When I say one thousand and A.—A body of gas as it ascends, ex

ninety feet, I mean one thousand and pands, cools, and deposits moisture ; so if

ninety feet per second. you walk up hill the body of gas inside you expands, gives its heat to you, and Q.How has the velocity of light . deposits its moisture in the form of dew

been measured? or common swet. Hense these are the favorable conditions; moreover, it ex- A.—An atheistic scientist (falsely 50plains why you get warm by ascending called) tried experiments on the staela hill, in opposition to the well-known lites of Jupiter. He found that he could law of the conservation of energy.

delay the eclipse sixteen minutes by

going to the other side of the earths would be a perfect vacuum. The ball orbit; in fact, he found he could make would then bust, but you would not be the eclipse happen when he liked by sim- aware of the fact on account of the loudply shifting his position. Finding that ness of a sound varying with the density credit was given him for determining the of the place in which it was generated, velocity of light, by this means, he re- and not on that on which it is heard. peated it so often that the calendar began to get seriously wrong and there were Q.-Why do water pipes burst in cold riots, and Pope Gregory had to set things weather? right.

A.—People who have not studied Q.How would you disprove, experi- acoustice think that Thor burst the inentally, the assertion that white light pipes, but we know that it is nothing of passing through a piece of colored glass the kind for Proffessor Tyndall has burst acquires color from the glass? What is the mythologies and has tought us that it that really happens?

it is the natural behavior of water (and

bismuth) without which all fish would A.—To disprove the assertion that die and the earth would be in an iron "white light passing through a piece of grip. glass acquires color from the glass," I would ask the gentleman to observe that Q.What is the difference between a the glass has just as much color after the "real" and a "virtualimage? Give a light has gone through as it had before. drawing showing the formation of one of That is what really would happen. each kind.

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On the shores of the lake of the same name, in northern Ontario.

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NE of the most interesting places

The little town from which the region in America is the Cobalt mining is named, is not yet two years old, and district in northern Ontario — yet it contains, besides its transient popinteresting on account of the

ulation, some two or three thousand inwonderful richness of its mineral wealth,

habitants, and is, to say the least, unique as well as the peculiarly rapid growth

in its appearance-a city of shacks, huts, of Cobalt and the adjacent mining towns.

and tents mingled in delightful confusion, with here and there a sprinkling of modern houses, theaters, banks, and hotels, to give it an up-to-date appearance, the sign of civilization in the wilderness.

To reach Cobalt, on leaving North Bay, a junction point of the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific railroads, on the northern shore of Lake Nipissing, you pass through a hundred miles and more of wilderness, forest, rock, lake, and

stream, with nowhere a clearing, and ONE OF THE ORIGINAL HOUSES AT COBALT.

seldom a human habitation. In the fall

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