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the superb Shenandoah on the west. The instrument equipment includes devices such as described, and also apparatus for measuring the electricity in the atmosphere, for studying the relations to the atmosphere of the magnetism of the earth, the temperature of the soil, and even the motions of the earth—all of these phenomena being suspected of having a more or less intimate connection with the weather.

Adjacent to the main observatory building are two magnetic observatories, known as the “Absolute” and “Variation" buildings, respectively. Here the mysterious relations of magnetic storms, earth currents, and such phenomena, to 'sun spots, the aurora borealis, atmospheric electricity, and weather in gen Kite Tower, Mount WEATHER OBSERVATORY. eral, will be carefully studied. The “kite house," another interesting ad- and 32 inches deep, has, with recording junct, is a shingled, cylindrical structure instruments attached, soared to a height

-a sort of Dutch windmill tower—flat- of nearly a mile and a-quarter, probably tened on one side, where appear two pairs as high an elevation as ever attained by of doors, one above the other. Out of an independent kite of any pattern. the roof extends a tube through which T he Weather Bureau will here strive will be passed the wire cable holding the also for longer range in forecasting local large box kites to be used in exploring as well as general weather conditions. the atmosphere at levels below those This is expected to result from thorough visited by balloons. Inside of the tower exploration of the upper air as far as is a large reel governing the kites. The balloons can venture. “Sounding ballargest of the Weather Bureau box kites, loons" will be exploded in many parts of measuring 71/2 feet wide by 6/2 feet high each great storm that enters the contia-quarter miles up, he swooned away. Dr. A. Berson, who in 1894 ventured as high as five and two-thirds miles, commenced breathing pure oxygen when he had made less than four and a-quarter miles, his heart having commenced to beat and ache violently when he had covered but a little over two and a-half miles. Bersch and Snering, Germans, who

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made an ascent in 1901, BOLOMETRIC LABORATORY, MOUNT VILSON OBSERVATORY.

fainted at six and four

tenths miles. Thus it nent from the general gateway of storms will be seen that no creature of flesh and in the northwest or southwest. They will blood could survive to the tremendous "sound" the troubled ocean of atmos- height of twenty miles, anticipated by phere above us, very much as the mariner Professor Moore. sounds the watery sea below him.'

Even were the feat possible, there Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the would be small advantage in dispatching Weather Bureau, will endeavor to send a man to such an altitude. In this bright these “sounding balloons” to an altitude age, mechanical agencies perceive even of twenty miles. This would be a height more accurately and acutely than the much greater than ever reached by an sense organs of man; and such a device aëronaut. When Glaisher was five and —the "meteorograph”—capable of sery

ing as a substitute for both an aëronaut
and a weather observer, has been per-
fected by Prof. C. F. Marvin of Chief
Moore's staff. With four fountain pens,
it automatically keeps continuous record
of temperature, pressure, wind velocity,
and moisture, as the balloon to which it
is attached continues its ascent; and yet,
such is its compactness that it weighs
but two pounds and occupies a space no.
greater than that of an ordinary hand
camera. To produce an ink which will
not freeze, however, will be a rather dif-
ficult problem, since at an altitude of only
seven and three-quarters miles, the fluid
in the registry pen of the thermometer
carried by an unmanned balloon sent up
by the French scientists Hermits and
Besançon became a mass of ice. The
thermometer showed 51 degrees below
zero, Centigrade, when the ink froze.

For ascents of twenty miles, it might be preferred to send up in tandem two

balloons filled to different degrees with SHERRY

gas, so that, after the bursting of the

larger, the other—weighted down by the The BOLOMETER.

exploded envelope—would bring the apparatus gradually to earth, at the same

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Used in long-range forecasting.

time serving as a signal for its recovery tremendously low temperature to which if falling on land, or as a float if descend- his balloons must be exposed at the great ing upon water. None of these types altitudes anticipated. has yet been definitely accepted.

At a given hour each day, one of these One of the interesting adjuncts of the balloons will be sent up from Mount Mount Weather observatory will be an Weather; and simultaneously, from

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installation for the manufacture, by the many of the weather stations in distant electrolytic process, of all hydrogen gas parts of the country, others will be libfor the use of the balloons. For some erated for co-operative observations. It reason the generation of balloon gas has will be the purpose of these simultaneous ceased to be an industry in this country; flights to ascertain regularly from day to and this fact has hindered the Army's day the precise condition of the atmosexperiments with its great war balloon, phere above the land, up to the greatest bought some five years ago in Germany. attainable height, especially during the It has been necessary for Professor passage of storms and cold waves. The Moore to prod the manufacturers of practical result aimed at is—as before India rubber, in order to secure a ma- saidan extension of the range of foreterial that will retain its elasticity at the casts of these phenomena.

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COLOSSAL GEYSER OF WAIMANGU IN VIOLENT ERUPTION. Some of its jets are 500 feet high, and the same in diameter. The Maoris actually cook their food in this weird wilderness of boiling water.

Wonders of New Zealand

• By W. G. Fitz-Gerald

JEW ZEALAND is a There is a volcanic belt here about

kind of Utopian colony twenty miles wide, made up of smoking
where women vote and mountains, warm lakes, solfataras, boil-
poverty is unknown. It ing geysers, and innumerable thermal
is firstly a pastoral, springs of singular beauty and extraordi-
and secondly an agri nary curative value, which are now at-
cultural country. But tracting health and pleasure seekers from
it is mainly remarkable every part of the world.
to the outsider for its What may be called the threshold of
most curious aborigi- the Hot Springs region, is the Maori
nal race—the Maoris village of Toka-anu. For at least one
whose origin has been square mile in the vicinity of the hotel,

lost in the obscurity en- abound springs, ranging from warm veloping a people without letters; and water to water at boiling point. There for the thermal “wonderland” of North are beautiful, simmering pools of limpid Island, where a vast region has been set blue, edged with snow-white rims; black apart by the Government for all time as · holes of spluttering mud; boiling founa sanatorium for invalids.

tains hissing and foaming, and making This region abounds in volcanoes, natural cooking-pots for the Maori many of them over 6,000 feet high, women. whose crater-lips emit steam, vapors, The visitor is amazed to behold his and poisonous gases. Perhaps the most first spouting geyser with an enormous remarkable feature of New Zealand's vent shooting its ever-boiling water five thermal country is Mount Ruapehu, over hundred feet into the air in a foaming, 9,000 feet high, with a steaming crater snow-white dome of steaming water, lake on its summit. In March, 1895, an which affords a weird contrast with the eruption took place, forming a few hot flesh-tinted edges of its crater. Close by springs on the lake's margin, and increas- is a spring that petrifies everything put ing the heat in the lake itself. I have into it. These springs seem to be connever seen elsewhere anything like Lake nected in some way; and, as one goes Ruapehu. It lies at the bottom of a fun from one to the other among the thicknel-shaped crater whose perpendicular growing manuka scrub, one notices that sides are mantled with snow and ice. this one will empty and cool, as that fills

The water occupies a basin 500 feet in and boils. diameter, and 300 feet deep, and is quite Naturally one requires a guide in this inaccessible except when ropes are used. strange region, and for this purpose As to the hot springs of the Thermal Maori maidens of singular beauty are Zone, these stretch for nearly 300 miles, employed to steer the visitor round the but are most active in the neighborhood innumerable geysers, “porridge pots," of Lake Rotorua. This wonderful dis- mud-holes that for ever boil, and explodtrict is forever changing its face, and on ing pools. A couple of miles from Tokathe tenth of June, 1886, lost its most anu, lies Mount Kakaramea, an old volbeautiful feature during an eruption of cano whose entire north side appears to Mount Tarawera, when the famous Pink have been boiled soft by steam from the and White Terraces were destroyed, to- bowels of the earth, so that it is on the gether with Lake Rotomahana.

point of collapse. Its summit is brilliant

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