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red in hue, and every stone is decom- encrusted with dazzling sulphur crystals, posed into reddish clay ; while from every shot with opalescent shades of red. crack and cleft hot steam and boiling Arother active crater close by—Te water are streaming out with palpita Mari—and the hot springs of Ketetahi, tions, as though hundreds of steam en- are comparatively easy of access. At the gines were in action.
latter, one realizes one is indeed in the It is at the very foot of this slope that very heart of New Zealand's "wonderone dark night the Maori village of Te land.” We are at the mouth of a bottomRapa was entirely buried under a hideous less pit, and above us towers the great
mountain. The ground for five acres around us is almost burning hot—soft and treacherous, too. It is made up of decomposed basalt with red, white, and pink clay, fused with sulphur. A choking odor of burning brimstone fills the air. The ground is quaking and cracking from the great heat; and from these cracks steam is gushing, making as far as we can see a seething, hissing pandemonium, leaping in jets with unearthly shrieks of fury.
Now and then boiling water is shot to a great height, accompanied with stones and mud. There are sulphur baths here, too, known the world over as a sovereign remedy for rheumatism. From the summit of Tongariro, the view is indeed a surprise ; for, instead of barren wastes, as one might suppose, one looks upon 2 landscape of gorgeous luxuriance—wide plains, silvery rivers, densely-wooded gorges, snow-capped mountains, and everywhere the scarlet mistletoe of New Zealand hanging in great clusters from
the beech trees. THE CHAMPAGNE GEYSER.
Not far away is Lake Taupo, the road thence passing through a gorge of ver
tical cliffs, snow-white in hue, and avalanche of steaming mud. All the na freaked with red. There is a fleet of tives perished, together with their chief, boats on the lake; but again the most inthe renowned Te Heuheu, and all his teresting feature is the series of sulphur family.
springs, which in this region it seems The village of Toka-anu makes an ex- impossible to avoid. In one place will cellent headquarters for exploring the be found a number of hillocks of fanTongariro group, which sits in majesty tastic hue, at whose feet are innumerable on a huge flat cone near the center of the pits of sulphurous mud scattered over North Island, some two thousand feet many acres of red earth, ranging in above sea-level. The group consists of shade from pale pink to richest crimson. the colossal pile of Ruapehu, and the Here, again, the ground is soft and whole volcanic mass of Tongariro. On treacherous, and hissings and splutterthe southwestern side is the ever-smok- ings are heard as the mud bubbles and ing peak of Ngauruhoe, often throwing boils. Very terrible accidents have hapout hot stones and ashes with explosions pened at this place. worthy of Vesuvius herself, and lighting I have but little space in which to deal by night the lovely face of Lake Taupo. with the most remarkable spouting geyThe walls of this crater are beautifully sers of this region, but mention must be made at least of the Devil's Trumpet—a round hole in an enormous old mud caldron, from which issue, with roaring and hissing, streams of steam and water at such high pressure that heavy branches of trees thrown into the hole are shot upwards thirty or forty feet. The column of steam is visible fifteen or twenty miles away. A terrifying region indeed, clothed with steam, and assailing the ear with A "SHOT" 700 FEET HIGH FROM Giant Waimangu Geyser near RotoRNA. growls and hisses—the "Pop-flop” of boiling mud-porridge and resplendent with a riot of brilliant purple the growl and swish of columns of boil- and golden yellow. ing water shot to incredible heights !
All these places are provided with Then there are the great Wairakei elaborately fitted baths, and excellent geyser, the Champagne caldron, the hotels filled with health-seekers hailing Fairy Baths, the Dragon's Mouth—which from every nation of the Old World, as last throws rosy red water from "jaws” well as from our own country, and even of salmon pink. There are geysers with from remote South American nations coal-black basins, boiling springs of milk- like Paraguay, Venezuela, Chile, and white water, and strange volcanic rocks Peru."
All-Steel Railway Coaches
By J. Mayne Baltimore
LL-STEEL passenger coaches The practicability of using steel cars
are soon to be installed on all the lias passed the experimental stage, and lines included in the vast Harri- definite tests have demonstrated that all
man system, and the old wooden steel cars can be made as easily, and, concars are soon to become things of the sidering the benefits afforded, as cheaply, past. The tests that have been made as wooden cars. Electricity, generated have proved eminently satisfactory; and by the swiftly revolving axle of the car, orders have been officially issued by and stored in the baggage car, will be President Harriman, that all-steel cars substituted for gas for heating or lightshall be introduced on the lines of the ing purposes. This, with the introducSouthern Pacific. A large order for steel tion of metal equipment, is expected to coaches has already been placed in the minimize the liability to wrecks and their East, and the first cars are expected to ar- disastrous results. All-steel construction, rive before long in San Francisco. Others it is assumed, will prevent the danger of are to follow as rapidly as they can be cars telescoping; and the use of electricity turned out.
will eliminate the danger of fire. All-steel coaches will be a radical in- This change was not decided upon unnovation in the history of Western rail- til exhaustive tests had been made with roading. Now that President Harriman two all-steel cars built upon a special las determined upon the change, the order in the East, according to company subject is being discussed and commented plans. upon by the press, railroad officials, and All-steel passenger equipment for uniall ranks of railway employees.
versal use has been the dream of master car-builders for years; but the chief objection to the plan has been the excessive weight of a car made entirely of metal. The 60-foot day coach weighs 90,000 pounds, and a Pullman sleeper from 115,000 to 160,000 pounds. The increase in weight in the steel cars, using the special steel plates at first considered, would be about 15 per cent, so that a train made up of metal equipment, and weighing in excess of 100,000 pounds per car, could not be easily handled over the steep mountain grades of Western roads.
Experiments made by the Southern Pacific have recently developed the possibility of producing a steel car weighing not more than 10 per cent over wooden coaches. This is done by using lighter plates of greater strength, which are made especially for this class of construction. The general equipment of the
Harriman lines will follow as soon as the END VIEW OF ALL-STEEL PASSENGER COACH,
cars can be completed.
It is expected, after the idea has been the steel-frame passenger car promises so somewhat improved and more fully greatly to reduce the casualties in wrecks worked out, that steel cars can be built that the railways cannot too soon underwhich will be even lighter than the take its rapid introduction. It will be wooden ones now in use.
econoiny to do so. The Pullman Company will follow The Southern Pacific very recently had Harriman's lead, and will soon place all- an all-metal passenger coach built at its steel sleepers in commission. All the great car shops at Sacramento, Cal. This present equipment of the Pullman Com- new car is now being thoroughly “tried pany now turned out embodies recent im- out” on the “Owl Limited," running beprovements in the way of all-steel and tween San Francisco and Los Angeles, heavily reinforced platforms and vesti- and is giving complete satisfaction. The bules. It is the boast of the Pullman underframe consists of two heavy steel Company that none of its cars have ever beams extending the entire length of the telescoped, no matter how serious the car, and running to the ends of the platwreck; and the new all-steel construction forms. The floor construction is comwill render their coaches all the more posed of steel beams, asbestos, and conimpervious to shocks. In the wreck of crete, the whole being covered with thick, the Twentieth Century Limited near heavy linoleum. The vestibules are of the Mentor, Ohio, last year, the Pullman cars strongest possible kind to resist telescopwere so little damaged, although the ing. The car is 60 feet long, and has a train was moving at a high rate of speed, seating capacity for 72 passengers. There that they were placed in service soon are excellent arrangements for ventilaafterward.
tion, and it is lighted and heated with The progress of the movement toward combination gas and electric lamps by the all-steel construction, is further shown in Moskowitz axle equipment. This steel the recently reported decision of the car weighs 103,200 pounds, which is Pennsylvania Railroad Company to con- about 10,000 pounds heavier than the ortract for a large number of steel passen- dinary wooden coach of the same dimenger cars, that company desiring to have sions; but it is regarded as quite possible only steel cars run through the system of that this weight may be materially lestunnels under the North and East Rivers sened as a result of study and practical in connection with the great new termi- experiments. nal station in New York City. The en- It is understood that the Pullman Comtire practicability of steel cars has been pany will follow the lead of the Harriwell shown by those in service in the man lines, and soon have in use all-metal New York subway; and no railway coaches and sleepers. officer hereafter will be willing to In view of the demand likely to arise operate wooden passenger cars in a tun in the near future, many car-building nel system, particularly with electric mo firms are extending their plants to include tive power, if it can be avoided.
facilities for the new kind of construcBut for general railway service, too, tion.
O the young man who likes to breathe deeply of pure outdoor air, to tramp afield, and to be with the trees and the brooks and the rocks, and who is least afraid of heat or cold or hard
outdoor work, the profession of American forestry appears to be one of the most inviting of fields today. It is a new profession, a new field in this country, and has developed—to even what it is to-day—almost entirely within the past eight or ten years. No longer than that ago, the people at large in the United States, if they ever thought anything at all about the matter, dis
cerned in the few people who talked on forestry, a small body of scientific enthusiasts, not to say cranks. Trees ? Why, they were things to be cut downgotten out of the way. Ever since our fathers first landed, there had been unceasing war between the ax and the tree. Mostly, trees interfered with agriculture; therefore they must go. Generally there was a polite smile at best for the mossbacks who talked about "conserving forests." And so things were, not longer ago than the youngest voter can remember. Now, this year, Congress appropriated $1,000,000 in cash for the year's expenses of the Bureau of Forestry, while another three-quarters of a million is received from the administra
sect longemberec, 000.00e Bureaarters, istra
riated $1.com this youngest woen