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OOMS are warmed to a comfort- ting heat in steam pipes than in large
cient to make up for the loss re- small buildings, the air flows to the rooms sulting from radiation through walls and because of natural circulation. The windows, the leaking of air around doors, warm air in the room leaks outward, and windows, etc. The two most successful the heated air rises from the basement to mediums are steam and hot water, for take its place. these readily absorb heat and as readily give it up to the surrounding air and ob
Fan Systems jects.
In large buildings it is often necessary Direct and Indirect Systems
to supply air in large quantities for venti
lation. This is especially true of buildBoth mediums are applied in systems, ings of a public character, such as known as "direct" and “indirect." In the
churches, schoolhouses, theaters, etc., for former, the pipes or radiators through in these structures many people are conwhich steam or hot water flows are placed tained in comparatively small space. In in the room to be heated, and the heat such cases, the natural circulation of air is supplied from them by direct radiation. in the indirect system will not supply a In the indirect, the coil or radiator is lo- sufficient quantity, and the direct system cated in the basement, or at the base of is useless for ventilation. To get the rethe flues leading into the room, and the quired air, it must be circulated mechaniair passing over it takes up heat and car- cally, and this is best accomplished with ries it to the room, In some respects the some form of fan or blower. indirect system resembles furnace heat
The Blower ing, for the hot air comes into the room through registers, no heating apparatus This machine is simply a sheet-metal being in sight.
casing of scroll shape, within which a It is evident that the indirect system steel-plate fan wheel revolves at high is preferable to the direct as to ventila- speed, taking air at the center or shaft, tion, for no ventilation occurs with the and giving it rapid motion by means of latter installation. With the indirect, the revolving blades or vanes. Delivered considerable air is introduced in order to at the tips of the blades, the air leaves the supply the required amount of heat. The fan, under slight pressure, by a tangenefficiency of the direct system is, how- tial outlet. For heating work, the fan is ever, greater, for all the heat is supplied usually operated by a small steam engine, directly to the air and objects in the t!:e set being called a "steam fan." room, and there is less loss in transmit- *There are two distinct methods of fan (3+2)
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heating. In one, the air is heated in the
the pressure within the building is less basement to a high temperature (higher than that outside, and air leaks in from than that of the room). On entering the all sides. Evidently purer air will be room, the heated air supplies enough heat maintained in the Plenum, for it can be to replace that lost through walls and drawn from a reliable source. windows. By the other method, direct
The sketch on the blackboard shows the genradiation (steam pipes or radiators in the eral arrangement of the apparatus used in the room) furnishes the required amount of Plenum system. Air from out of doors enheat, and a fan forces in air at the room
ters through an opening into the Plenum
chamber, in which a small heater, called the temperature, to provide ventilation.
"tempering coil,” heats it to about 70° F. It The first-mentioned method is better for is then drawn into the fan, which forces it buildings that must be kept warm all the time; among and between the pipes of the main it has the advantage of requiring the installa- heater. As it is under slight pressure when tion of but one system. The second is often it leaves the coils, the air passes up through selected for buildings to be ventilated but a the ducts to the rooms above. The apparatus few hours at a time; for the fan need not is provided with suitable dampers, by means operate except when the occupants are in the of which hot air, a mixture of the tempered building, and it is not necessary to supply more
air and the heated air, or the tempered air air than that required for ventilation. But alone, may be directed to the rooms. two separate systems must be put in.
For warm weather, the air from outside
may be passed through the fan, and thence to Plenum and Exhaust Systems the rooms, without passing through the heater,
thus supplying frequent changes of air. The fan system may properly be divided into two classes, in the first of The blower system has the advantage which the rooms are under a slight pres- of being independent of the direction of sure; that is, the pressure within is just wind, positive in action, and economical enough to cause all leakage to be out- as to cost of running the fan; for the exward. This is called the "Plenum." In haust steam from the engine may be used the second, called the "Exhaust" system, in the heater.
passes over a series of pulleys, to one of
which is attached a counterweight. The THE "HE illustration shows a motor driven
purpose of the counterweight is to take by the power the waves bear in their
up slack when the motor is drawn in shoreward sweep. A sloping beach is
toward shore. One of the pulleys is necessary for the operation of the machine. Given surf and a favorable posi- nected with additional apparatus, consist
fixed to a shaft; and this, in turn, is contion on the shore line, the inventor be- ing of levers, drums, and other gear, all lieves his device should do excellent serv
of which complete the chain and keep ice. It is designed as follows:
the motor in operation. A platform is constructed, with four standards, one at each corner.
These standards support as many sheaves, over
Wooden Clothes which two cables are passed. The cables IT will probably not be very long before are for the purpose of drawing the motor we can go into one of the dry-goods into or out of the water as may be de- stores and say to a clerk, "Let me see
what you have in the
the future cheap suits. sired. This object is accomplished by the costing about 50 cents and guaranteed turning of a crank. A series of buckets to last for years, will be made of spruce attached to cables comprise the motor or pine. Napkins, shirts, collars of the proper. As the buckets pass into the finest quality, have long been made from waves, they of course fill; and as they the fiber of hemp; and in using wood for are drawn up by the cables, they are heavier cloth, the process is equally overturned and thus emptied of their simple. The wood is first ground into contents. The motion thus set up is a soft pulp, and this pulp is pressed transmitted by cable to the machinery of through holes in iron plates. It comes a framework shore. This cable out in long ropes about 1/2 inch in di
COURTESY OF SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
ameter. These ropes, which are very specimens of their kind to be found in the easily broken at this stage, are dried, world. and then twisted tightly, until finally they become as small as threads. Part of the threads are used for the warp, and part Sweeps and Sprinkles for the filling, out of which a strong web of wooden cloth is woven.
THE automobile street sweeper and
sprinkler is a French invention designed to perform at once two kinds of work ordinarily done' separately. The
dust that always arises after a disturbCalla Lily Farm
ance of the pavement debris, is instant
ly downed by the almost simultaneous IN California the calla lily flourishes in
shower of water that follows hard upon superabundant profusion, and attains a degree of perfection rarely ever seen
the course of the sweeper.
For its cleanliness and labor-saving elsewhere. It is cultivated on a very large scale, for the sale of these flowers is im- qualities, the invention commends itself.
An automobile is built with a box or mense. During the entire year, the plant
tank, having a capacity of 600 gallons of flourishes in the open air, and its cultivation has become a very profitable indus
water. A brush, driven by chain and try. Great crops are raised, and scores of carloads are shipped to the cities and larger towns of California, where a ready market is found. These favorite flowers are also shipped into Nevada and other adjoining States in immense quantities.
What is probably the largest calla lily farm in the world is located in California. There is one 50-acre field in Ventura county devoted exclusively to the cultivation of these flowers. They are planted in long, narrow rows, and are cultivated by means of plows and hoes just like corn or potatoes. The lilies attain a very large size, and are perhaps the most beautiful
AUTO STREET-SWEEPER AND SPRINKLER.
COURTESY OF SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
repeats the operation. Each cigar is watched carefully during combustion; and every detail affecting the filler, wrapper, binder, ash, and aroma is noted. The plant from which each cigar is made is known, and the seed of the one making the best showing is selected for future planting
The cigars are placed in "mouthpieces" at the ends of several glass tubes leading to a bottle, which, through another tube, is connected with a flask containing a siphon. The flask and siphon act as lungs—breathing water, however, instead of air. The siphon comes into action when the flask is filled, the water being gradually drawn off, to be replaced with
air drawn through the cigars. A special MACHINE THAT SMOKES CIGARS.
device is provided to make the action inIn use at the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for testing the qualities of "the weed." termittent. Four cigars of average size
can be smoked in half an hour. sprocket, is raised and lowered by a lever Machinery has supplanted man's acat the driver's side. This brush sweeps a tivity in many ways; but not even this strip six feet wide. The sprinkler has a product of ingenuity need arouse any maximum spread of 20 feet. With an fear that machinery is going to invade empty tank, the machine may attain a the sphere of man's “dear delights.” speed of 15/2 miles an hour. The motor is of 12 horse-power, and is adjusted to three speeds, 5, 11, and 151/2 miles an hour. These speeds depend upon the cir- A Shipshape Home cumstances under which the machine is working. If the street is wet from rain AHOUSE has been constructed in
New Orleans, to be the home of a or other cause, the pavement is, of course,
mariner, which differs radically from any simply swept without recourse being had
other dwelling in the city in its design to the water tank.
and arrangement. As the illustration
shows, the main building is square in A Smoking Machine shape; its exterior is not novel in ap
pearance, except for the circular cupola THE champion cigar-smoker has been
found in the Department of Agriculture at Washington. At each smoking, four cigars are consumed, all at the same time. Were such a record to be credited to any member of the personnel of the departmental staff, probably few of the important results announced from time to time from this center of activity would be heard of.
This smoker, however, is only a testing machine used for determining the quality of tobacco intended for cigars, with a view to producing an unrivaled quality of the fragrant weed. It smokes the four cigars with more regularity than any man could possibly accomplish the feat. It takes ten seconds steady draw,
A MARINER'S HOME.
Though built as a private residence, the interior is made gives a puff, and after one-half minute
to resemble the interior of a ship.