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be a mere licensee and acquire no ease- stone-crusher was installed at La Boca ment in the land over which the line on the Pacific side, to supply material for should be laid.

these roads; and storehouses and barWith confident energy and prompt- racks were constructed at intervals along ness, Mr. Baker started shipment of pipe the line. within forty-eight hours of the time The pipe used is of 8-inch interior diwhen the concession was finally ap- ameter, tested to 1,200 pounds' pressure, proved. Shipments were made from Mc- and weighs approximately 600 pounds to Keesport, Pa., to Baltimore, Md., thence the joint. Experience on the Isthmus


to Colon; and by April Fool's Day the has shown that the life of iron and steel agents of the Standard were able to re- there is very short, by reason of the heat port that the Western company had all and humidity and the nearness to salt of its pipe delivered and distributed. water. Mr. Baker feared that exposure

Work was begun at once at both ends en route from Baltimore to Colon, would and in the middle of the line, three gangs land all shipments in bad condition, and being put to work. White foremen were therefore had all pipe heavily painted besent out from the States; and the labor- fore leaving the foundry. After distribuers employed were for the most part Ja- tion, every section was again gone over, maica negroes, who had proven their and such spots as had been bared by ability to work under the oppressive cli- tongs or by the accidents of travel were matic conditions of the Isthmus. Most again painted. Then, when the pipe was of the line, as laid, parallels the railroad in position, it was again heavily coated and the canal, so that the question of with white lead and linseed oil, the painttransportation for men and material was ers following close on the heels of the not a formidable one; but there were construction gang. many places where short cuts were made, In the course of the work, it was found and here sappers were sent ahead to clear that the Jamaica negroes were quite satthe almost impenetrable thickets, and is factory in so far as their health and road-makers threw temporary ways ability to work under all conditions were through marshes and over streams. A concerned, but that they seldom did more

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Looking northwest toward the Atlantic from top of Culebra divide. than one-third of what we consider a The question of transportation from day's work. On the other hand, the white the oil fields to the Isthmus was taken men employed were in many cases in- up by the Union Oil Company at an early valided by the terrible Chagres fever, and stage of the negotiations; and before the found it impossible to do continuous work ink was dry upon the company's concesunder the trying conditions. By actualsion, it had two tank steamers on the count, the negro bricklayers laid seven- Texas coast, and three on the Pacific. teen bricks per hour.

These ships form the nucleus of a gathThe greatest elevation of the line is ering fleet which will distribute the prod210 feet, and the present working pres- ucts of the Texas and California fields; sure is 600 pounds, with a maximum of and as this fleet will consist wholly of 800 pounds. As laid, the line is a surface American bottoms, the net result will be

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line, although in many places the weight an increase in our rather diminutive of the pipe carried it below the surface merchant marine. In California alone, before the construction gang was out of the opening of this new avenue of dissight. This spongy and apparently bot- tribution means an increase of one-third tomless soil was one of the prime ob- in the present market demand for oil. stacles to the work, and the many T he relation of this pipe line to the stream-crossings were a source of delay work of the Canal Zone is well recogand trouble. One hundred and eleven of nized, and was a strong factor in securthese crossings had to be effected. ing the permission of the two Govern

In course of construction at La Boca, ments. Fourteen thousand tons of coal two and one-half miles from Panama on a month are brought into Colon, most of the Pacific side, is a pumping plant it coming from Norfolk, Va., in Norequipped with a Dahl steaṁ pump, whose wegian colliers. The handling of this capacity will be 25,000 barrels a day; coal is a severe tax upon the facilities of and near by is the first storage tank the port, and a source of congestion on erected on the line. The total storage the overcrowded Isthmian railway. With now provided for is 300,000 barrels, but oil at hand, it is possible to cut off all this will be materially increased.

this coal, and thus relieve the carriers and docks for the handling of necessary The point of shipment from the Calbusiness. Then, again, the price at which ifornia fields is Port Harford, between oil is offered is far below that of coal, Monterey and Santa Barbara ; and at the and will permit a great saving in every Isthmus, ships will be discharged at La department of power production. Pipe Boca, two and one-half miles from Panlines to dredges, steam shovels, power ama, where the tanks and pumping staplants, and roundhouses, can readily be tion are located. A simple and effective laid from the trunk line, and the installa- unloading apparatus has been patented tion of oil-burning apparatus for locomo- by Mr. Baker for use in this service. It tive and other boilers has already begun. consists of flexible hose carried ashore by a warp from the ship and sustained depend, so the Captain of Industry must by floats. This apparatus is inexpensive watch and wait for the collier and the and expeditious, and avoids the delays pipe line for the salvation of his forces. and heavy expenses that are always in- In the days of Spanish dominion, gold cident to dockage.



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and silver crossed the leafy trails from As a Field Marshal looks anxiously to ocean to ocean on the backs of the long the rear of his advancing forces for the muie-trains. To-day the malodorous crawling lines of wagons of the commis- asphaltic oil of California flows from sary upon which his safety and success Panama to Colon over the old trail.


Little Creek Does Farm Work*

By W. E. Phillips

N the western outskirts of ever, it is perhaps the most talked-about the hustling manufactur- country place in the land, for it possesses ing town of Oriskany what is probably the first practically comFalls, in Oneida County, plete electrical farm plant ever constructNew York, is located a ed. It has been visited by large numbers valuable farm property of people who have read or heard about with spacious farmhouse it, and who have come through mingled

and commodious outbuild- curiosity and interest, to see for themings. Its broad acres stretch from the selves. sides of the clustering hills, down into The present owner and occupant of the narrow valley where flows the rush- this property is E. Burdette Miner, who ing Oriskany creek in its haste to join succeeded to the management on the the Mohawk, into which it empties near the historic battlefield of the Revolution, at Oriskany. This farm lies in the midst of a fertile agricultural section, and one year ago it would not have been particularly noticeable to the passer-by, though for many years its well-tilled fields and bountiful harvests have been silent witnesses to the energy and intelligence that have characterized its management. To-day, how

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*NOTE-It is calculated by electrical engineers, that a plant similar to the one here described would cost $1,800 to $2,000 to install.

The Dam.

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