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for "Swansea tempest near The Core in those
cruise of many weeks, went ashore on one too great considering the risks that had of the Orkney Islands and became a total been incurred. wreck. The Briscoe, in January, 1894, A multitude of “small-fry” derelicts left Queenstown for New York, met hur- there are also, which it does not pay pasricane weather, had her bow stove by senger or freight steamships to attempt ice, ran short of coal, and was obliged to to tow, but which would yield a goodly burn her woodwork. She was towed for profit to a regular derelict-hunter. These two days by the steamer Ulunda, and are the wooden lumber-carriers, which then parted her hawser and drifted clear. neither fire nor water seems able to deAt last, after being 66 days out, the crew left her one morning, 60 miles south of Cape Race, to row to land, when soon they saw a steamer's smoke and rowed back and signaled her, being then towed safely to St. John's, where the salvage was fixed at $8,000.
But not all the prizes are steamers. In November, 1899, the big iron bark Cubana, with a cargo of copper ore from Tilt Cove, N. F.,
BOARDING A DERELICT Yacht. for Swansea, Wales, was beset by a tempest near the Irish coast stroy, for the waves quench the flames and broke her rudder. The crew aban- and the natural buoyancy of the cargo doned her, and she drifted about in those prevents the hull sinking. One of the waters all that winter and well into the most remarkable of these was the W. G. next summer, when she drove north Sargent, which was destroyed by an to the Shetland Islands, where some of American gunboat on March 31, 1891, the coast folks boarded her, found her after having in 615 days drifted more comparatively uninjured, and took her than 5,500 miles, and during this twointo port, getting $10,000 in salvage, for year cruise, piloted only by the breezes her cargo was valuable.
and currents, was reported thirty-four A noteworthy case of sailship-salv times. ing, was the picking up by the steamer Another celebrated derelict was the Exeter City of the derelict American American schooner W. H. White, whose schooner Agnes Manning, that had been career ended on June 23, 1899, off the adrift for several months. She had a Hebrides. She was known to mariners bad record, having sunk the steamer as the “White Ghost," and was adrift for Manhattan off the Jersey coast with a over twenty months, traveling nearly loss of nineteen lives, and was suspected 5,000 miles and making most erof destroying two Yankee fishing vessels ratic zig-zag courses across the Atlanoff Cape Cod. She was found an utter tic, she being sighted thirty-seven times derelict, with twelve feet of water in her during all her wanderings. For many hold, 470 miles east of Sandy Hook, and months at the outset she appeared like a to get her--for she was a big ship-into well-masted and well-manned vessel ; and port, proved an exceedingly stiff job. only on near approach could it be seen The court awarded the Exeter City $850 that she was tenantless. Off the Hebrifor actual expenses, and 50 per cent of des, at length, she was sighted by a the property saved, which amounted to coasting steamer, which sent a boat's $35,000, a substantial reward, but none crew aboard, hoping to tow her in; but
se leter City picking up by Seile hip-salv
she had evidently struck on some reef, voted $200,000 to buy her from the making water fast, and, before the whalemen, and sent her to England as a steamer was standing off again, she sank, gift to the late Queen Victoria, who, when with all sails set.
the Resolute was broken up in 1877, had The most famous of all derelicts, how- a desk made from her timbers and preever, and the one that yielded the largest sented it to President Hayes. salvage, was the British ship Resolute, Such chances, of course, are not at all one of the vessels sent out in 1851 with likely to come in the way of those who an expedition for the relief of Sir John would embark in derelict-hunting as a Franklin and his arctic explorers. She commercial speculation ; but, because of was frozen fast in Melville Bay, and the enormous and ever-increasing numabandoned ; and four years later drifted ber of ships that meet mishap in the out with an ice-floe and was found off North Atlantic, it is clearly manifest that, Cumberland Gulf, Baffin Bay, by a New with the utilization of wireless telegEngland whaler, which put a prize crew raphy on its prospective scale, the day is aboard her and navigated her to St. not far distant when the derelict-hunter John's, N. F., and from there to New will be a recognized adjunct to modern Bedford, Mass. The United States Con- marine enterprise. That his field will gress, as an act of international courtesy, be profitable, is already demonstrated.
V JHO climbs the mountain does not always climb;
Yet each descent is higher than the last.
-ELLA WHEELER WILCOX.
From Peat to Paper in Two Hours
By James Cooke Mills
HREE miles west of the is a certain sense of dread at the thought
little village of Capac, is of being there after nightfall, when the
tervals by long arms of plant of its kind in the world. The prochigher fertile ground, some of which is ess of converting peat into paper-fincultivated, while patches here and there, ished, weighed, and tied in packages, acres in extent, are grown over with sec- ready for shipment—all in two hours, is ond-growth timber. On the north, the a most remarkable achievement and likely bog is traversed by the main double- to revolutionize the industry in some tracked line of the Grand Trunk Railway. branches.
Standing on the right-of-way, and In the manufacture of paper, fiber is looking out over the green and brown ex- the chief factor, and in the peat-to-paper panse of moss and ferns under the bright process, the fiber is the decomposed roots, noonday sun, one experiences no unpleas- moss, and ferns, the accumulation of ant sensations of sight; nevertheless there ages. The peat in this bog, covering
thousands of acres, lies from three to tank. From this tank it flows by gravity five feet in thickness, although in some through pipes to the many machines in places the depth has been found to be the various processes of manufacture. forty feet. Water is another important At the back of the mill, a long, wide factor in the process, and is obtained shed extends out over the bog; and from from eight deep wells. By means of com- the end of this shed one can see a gang pressed air forced down an inner pipe of of laborers at work digging the peat and the well tubing, an abundant supply of loading it into small cars, which convey pure water is discharged into an elevated it through the long storage shed into the
pulp mill. Here the peat is deposited in one of two machines called “hessers.” These machines were made in Austria, and are the only ones in the United States.
The operation of the hesser is a novel and interesting process in the first preparation of the tough lumps of peat for the paper mill. The large, round bed of the machine, on which the peat is thrown, revolves slowly. At regular intervals around the bed and above it, are ten huge arms
with claw-like ends, The "Hesser."
which, revolving up and This machine mashes and stamps the peat into a soft, mud-like substance. down and through the
peat, with water added, break up the revolve slowly through the pulp, a thin tender roots and moss, mixing all thor- layer adheres to the cloth and is carried oughly so that the peat comes out soft along on it, the water in the pulp runand mushy.
ning through the fine mesh into the inThe mass is then dumped into a side of the cylinder. Along the upper "breaker” machine, which is simply an edge of the cylinders and pressed down elliptical iron tank provided with a sort of paddle-wheel turning horizontally. Much water is here added, and the peat becomes a thin, black pulp. Being now a
KUN liquid, it is allowed to flow into two "stuff chests.” These are circular, concrete tanks embedded below the floor, and are 14 feet in diameter by 12 feet deep.
Two "Jordan engines” draw off the black liquid, and further refine the mass in a mixing process, before it passes onto a screen which removes sma 11 stones, dirt, and stringy matter, leaving it a clean,
THE HUGE "DRIER" MACHINE. black pulp.
It is now ready for the paper or "wet" machine, which converts the pulp into paper. on them by rollers, runs an endless belt In this interesting process, the pulp of felt, which catches the fibrous pulp partly fills the long tank forming and carries it along up and over a series the base of the machine, so that five 10- of pressure rolls that compress it into foot cylinders, two feet in diameter, hung a thin, endless sheet of cardboard which close to the top, are about two-thirds comes out firm and strong enough to sussubmerged. These hollow cylinders are tain its weight: covered with fine wire cloth; and, as they T he next process dries this endless
sheet of paper through a “drier” machine, by far the largest machine in the plant. This machine is 66 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 11 feet high, and may be described as a combination of huge rolls or cylinders, placed horizontally, there being forty-one of them in all.
The endless sheet of wet paper, passing from the rolls of the paper machine, enters the driving machine, passes up and over, down and around the hot rolls, and in twenty minutes comes out at the other end, dry, firm paper.
A calender that now takes the strip forces it between heavy pressure rolls,
giving it the required finish, when it A PORTION OF THE PAPER MACHINE,
is carried to the cutting machine. Here Here the pulp is converted into paper.
it is cut to any desired size or shape,