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and laid out automatically on a table. For several months the plant has been When it is weighed and tied in packages, . working twenty-four hours a day, six it is put on small cars, and run into the days a week, and turning out about thirty railway cars for shipment.
tons of the finished cardboard daily. All The finished product is superior to the that the plant can produce is at present cardboard made from straw or wood being used in the manufacture of cartons pulp, in several ways. The passing of the by the makers of breakfast foods and peat pulp over the hot rolls in the process other food products; but the uses to
FINISHING AND CUTTING MACHINERY. Calender which finishes the paper is shown at right, in foreground: beyond it is the cutter which automatically
cuts the sheets to any size.
of manufacture, brings to the surface of which it can be put, on account of its the paper the natural oil of the peat, and great strength and toughness, are many. makes the surface of the finished prod- The rapid disappearance of the forests uct waterproof and antiseptic. Besides necessitates the finding of some substithis, peat paper is lacking in the odor tute for wood in the making of barrels which straw or wood-pulp paper pos- and kegs, and experiments have shown sesses. The peat cardboard is also ex that the peat paper is entirely suitable for tremely tough.
these purposes also. Before many years, All these things make the manufacture too, print paper—now being made from of the product much less expensive than wood pulp—may be manufactured from strawboard. Whereas the latter costs peat. Practically all that is needed is over $20 per ton to produce, the peat the addition of a bleaching process to cardboard is being turned out at the reduce the brown-colored boxboard to the Capac plant for about $8.
A Spool of Wire Speaks
By E. F. Stearns
PAID Mr. Brown to Mr.
“I never in my life agreed to do anything of the sort !"
“And I say that you
did !” Mr. Jones replied flatly. “And I say again that I did not !”
Just here Mr. Brown brought his fist down with a slam that made things rattle on Mr. Jones's desk. He faced himwith a glare of defiance and perhaps a little cunning.
“Then I must repeat that you did !” Mr. Jones pursued smoothly. “Last Thursday morning, when we discussed the affair over the telephone, you agreed to do precisely that and nothing else. My plans have been made accordingly, and the fact that you have changed your mind doesn't alter matters a particle."
“Jones!" thundered Mr. Brown, “I defy you to prove—”
There was something odd about Mr. Jones's voice. Mr. Brown started a little and stared more.
From the queer machine on the desk across the room, the cover was removed, to reveal an instrument of most unusual appearance. Mr. Jones stepped to his own desk and extracted from a drawer a big spool of fine, shiny wire. He hurried back and slipped it into the machine ; he pressed the button and the spool began to spin rapidly; he picked up a pair of telephone receivers and listened for 'a minute. After which, he smiled slightly and said:
“If you'll just come over here and listen for a minute—?" With an enigmatic grunt, Mr. Brown
complied. He took the receivers and held mitter; now the switch goes to "hearthem to his ears. And his face became ing," and you listen. And the words a study, for he was hearing strange come forth—not after the "scratchy" things. For a beginning, he heard his manner of the phonograph, not with the own voice, perfectly suave and even that side noises so often incidental to the Thursday morning, asking for Mr. telephone, but clearly, distinctly, with a Jones; he heard the replies of the office pure, clean-cut, flowing quality difficult clerk; he heard Jones's steps approaching to describe, but astounding to hear! the telephone. He heard Jones's first If even a hint of such an idea as is words of the conversation and his own here embodied can be given in a dozen reply in his own voice! His amazed words, the principle of the telegraphone brain absorbed the fact that the whole in operation is as follows: Feeding from conversation was being repeated, word one to another of two large spools, some for word and in precisely the original six inches apart, runs a steel wire, 1,tones.
100 of an inch in diameter. Midway beA little later, he heard “central” an- tween the spools, upon an upright arm, nounce the end of five minutes, and heard are placed two electro-magnets, facing himself ordering her off the wire! He each other and with perhaps one-sixheard himself make the agreement pre- teenth inch of space between them; and cisely as Jones stated; he heard the click in circuit—when the “speaking" or "dicas he rung off! Mr. Brown dropped the tation" switch is on—with the telephone receivers with a gasp and stammered : transmitter. “W-w-w-what-?"
The wire running between the mag"It means that we have a telegraphone nets, a motor sets the spools in rapid revhitched on to our telephone here!” Mr. Olution. From the transmitter the viJones announced. “And it means that brations of the voice are communicated every blessed word coming over that to the magnet coils. In the infinitesimal wire, which I want to record, goes into instant of passing between the magnets, that machine and can be reproduced a each tiny section of the hurrying wire has thousand times—here, in court, or any been magnetized, with an intensity and where else. Now, how about that agree- polarity corresponding to the strength of ment, Brown?"
the particular sound-wave entering the Or perhaps it never took place at all. instrument at that instant. Indeed, it hardly could have taken place, The record completed, the spools are for the telegraphone is not in use as yet reversed, and the wire rapidly reeled back among the business public; yet if the lit- by turning the switch to “hearing.” The tie scene above is not duplicated daily receiver is brought into circuit with the within the next few years, it will be only magnets, and the wire started forward because some transcendently brilliant once more. Magnets and magnetized mind has contrived something superior to wire acting as a tiny magneto generator, the telegrąphone. That seems far from the coils are electrified to a greater or less likely.
degree, as the original sound-waves were It is rather a weird instrument, this strong or weak. The varying vibrations telegraphone. You see a box of some- are communicated to the receiver—and thing less than a cubic foot; you see two the voice is reproduced ! spools, five or six inches in diameter, Rather a simple application of a not filled with hair-like steel wire; you see unknown principle, perhaps. Doubtless; an ordinary telephone transmitter and a but it remained for Poulsen, a Danish pair of receivers—and that is all. The inventor, to put it into practical applicawhole affair looks mysterious rather tion. The fact that sound can be prothan complicated, and you feel that duced by connecting a telephone receiver there is not a great deal to understand with an electro-magnet and waving a about it.
permanent magnet close to the face of But the weirdness comes when you the latter, constitutes an interesting lablisten. The demonstrator, say, has set oratory experiment. The fact that the the “speaking” switch, and you have same phenomenon can be applied to a tiny spoken haphazard words into the trans- steel wire, rushing along at a rate of ten
feet per second, that the wire can be mag- and can concentrate them perfectly in his netized by the vibrations of the voice and talk to the whirling little machine. the vibrations reproduced by an inversion Ah! That was a mistake, wasn't it. of the process, brings us face to face with He should have said Tuesday in the senrather a remarkable proposition.
tence before last, instead of Wed esdav. What are the commercial possibilities However, it is very easily altered. Our of the telegraphone? At present, three friend merely stops his telegraphone stand forth prominently.
again, runs it back to the spot where tha: The value of the recording telephone error occurred, and starts it forward as such can hardly be estimated. Here- again ; and thereafter talks liis revised tofore the telephone, vastly important as version of the letter into the machineit must be considered, has been open to and proceeds calmly as ever. one grave objection: the lack of any per
And at about this time the thoughtful manent record. Within five minutes of
reader probably suggests that he has now its passage over the wire, the message at
placed two records on the same length the mercy of man's fickle memory, lies
of wire, and that trouble impends. Not · open to confusion or dispute or utter con
at all. As the wire takes the forward mofutation. Save for the remote possibility
tion once again, the electro-magnets of of an interested party having switched
themselves destroy the previous magnetic a third instrument into the circuit and
impressions, eliminating or "wiping off" listened to both ends of the conversation,
the former record; and as the instrument there is nothing whatever to prove or
works on, in almost the same wee flash disprove either side of the case. Each
of time the wire is cleared of all that went end of the wire might swear positively
before and is receiving the new record ! that this or that had not been said-and with equal justice.
And now the letters are done and The telegraphone has altered that
ready for the stenographer, in the next
room or the next building or the next slightly. Once in action, it gathers not one end of the conversation or the other,
town. Our business man signals; his but every audible sound which passes
aid fastens the receiver over the ear; the over the telephone line! Spinning si
typewriter is made ready; and her anlently, it forges its invisible chain of mag
swer goes back. From the telegraphone, netic impressions, without an error or a
the letters follow one another over the break or the altering of a single inflec
wire and are transcribed; and thus the
ordeal of dictation is passed through tion of the voice. And when its work is over, it stands ready to deliver you the
without stenography, without annoyance, finished record, to be reproduced on the
without anything but peace, calm, and spot, or a year or a dozen years later!
utter satisfaction! The second interesting application
It is all rather easier for the stenogcomes in the telegraphone as a dictating rapher, too; it seems almost as if the ininstrument.
ventor, doubtless an eccentric person, had Our busy man sits alone, with the task
considered the much-maligned class of of answering his morning's letters. Be
shorthand workers to possess some fore him stands the telegraphone ; at his
rights. Let us suppose that that last letlips is the transmitter. He talks as he ter was not quite clear. Back goes the thinks. slowly and clearly: he has plenty telegraphone and repeats it conscienof time. There are two miles of wire to tiously, without annoying the original run through that machine, and another speaker in the slightest degree. And if spool may be inserted in a minute or so
interruptions come to the typist in the when the present one is full! He stops middle of a letter, and the telegraphone and ponders for five minutes : at the pres- must be stopped, the obliging instrument ure of the switch the instrument stops as well. There is no subdued rustle of ders the picking-up process perfectly easy skirts, no disturbing tap of the poised and when started into action again! waiting pencil, no pleading to go a trifle In the automatic telephone station slower or to repeat that last sentence comes the third and probably most fasagain. He is alone with his thoughts, cinating phase of the telegraphone.
We may as well return to Mr. Jones, That is what one might almost consider who has the instrument in his office. It a remarkable invention! is a Saturday afternoon in summer; These are things which the telesave for himself, the office is wholly de- graphone is actually doing, in its babyserted. Even he, while denied a holiday hood and before coming into general in his own establishment, must spend the commercial use. With science, ingenuity, afternoon in running around uptown. and the demands of modern business beMeanwhile, several people are likely to hind it, can there be any certain prediccall him up on the 'phone.
tion of the .extent of the field over which Nevertheless, he is not worried. He it will spread with the years of developmerely sets his telegraphone in readi- ment to come? The basic principle, the ness and departs. Presently “central ” apparatus itself, are simple, certain facts, calls the office. The telegraphone an- of which the above-described adaptions swers with a little tinkling signal of its are the first logical offshoots.' own! The man at the other end is in- But why not go further and consider, formed that such is the case and that the for example, the really indestructible recconversation must be one-sided. He de- ord, the record which only a magnet can livers his message to the telegraphone, eliminate ; the record of sound which can and the telegraphone records it. And without injury be pounded with a mallet then, at the end of three minutes, if the or dropped out of the window ? talk has not yet ceased, it completes the Why not consider the record half an good work by ringing off automatically hour long—or two hours, if you likeand stopping itself! If there is more to which delivers without interruption all be said, the other end will have to call manner of sounds, which reproduces the again; if that is all, the telegraphone is voice as clearly as the voice itself, which ready for the next comer!
gives back musical notes in all their origToward six, Mr. Jones returns. The inal purity? There would seem to be right-hand spool is almost full, it ap- possibilities there, pears; people have been calling up in And why not consider—but why consome numbers. Mr. Jones sits back in sider at all? With the telegraphone, the his chair, starts up the instrument, puts speculations of to-day are very likely to the receivers to his ears and listens to the be the facts of to-morrow. We can but various voices and messages that have wait, and with the reasonable assurance been floating into his office since noon! that the wait will not be very long.
NE man takes his work as a stone around his neck, and sinks
to apathy. Another takes it as a stepping-stone, and