« PreviousContinue »
CHATEAU DE RAMEZEY, MONTREAL, QUE., CANADA. Built in 1705, by Claude de Ramezey, Governor of Montreal. Here, after the capture of Quebec by the British in 1759, arrangements were completed for the withdrawal of the last French garrison from Montreal. In 1775, the Chateau was headquarters of the American Brigadier-General Wooster; and in 1776, under Gen. Benedict Arnold, the Commissioners of Congress-Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase, and Charles Carroll “of Carrollton"-held council within its walls. It was for years the official residence of the English Governors. Now used as an historical museum.
WASHINGTON'S BOYHOOD HOME IN FREDERICKSBURG, VIRGINIA. In this cottage, Mary Washington, mother of the first President, lived, and here she died, August 25, 1789. The house is now owned by the Society for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, and is still furnished very much as it was when Mrs. Washington lived here. The room in which she died, and her bed, are preserved intact.
Smoking the Pipe
By Chauncey Thomas
lation of distilled matter,
WIPES are smoked by mil- owned but three things—his stone ax,
F lions, always have been, his stone knife, and his stone pipe. He ks and always will be; yet had these before he had a wife. The
not one smoker in a thou- common idea is that the pipe followed tothe sand, or perhaps in ten bacco into use, and that both came from
was thousand, knows the ele- America. Such is not the case, howments of a good pipe. Sage attention is paid to the pipe material—be it wood, clay, or corncob—all of which has little, if anything, to do with the qualities of a pipe; and practically nothing whatever is thought of shape and proportion, the two things that make a pipe good or bad. A two-cent postage stamp, spent with intelligence, will buy as good a pipe as there is in the world; everything added to that price is for ornament, vanity, and, especially, for ignorance. The corncob holds a high place among pipe-smokers,
Fig. 2. A WORTHLESS PIPE. and deserves this place—usually—for the Location of draught causes uneven burning, and accumubest of scientific reasons.
The history of the pipe is as old as man, and has been written many times ever, for pipes were smoked in Asia, Afin all writable tongues. The earliest man rica, and Europe, as well as in America,
before man could spin. This much for pipe history; our present attention is on the difference between a good and a poor pipe in all ages, and what makes that difference.
I have known an engineer to talk by the hour over the draught of his fireboxes, and never once in half a lifetime think of the draught in his pipe that he smoked hourly. Yet the question of a good or a poor pipe is bound up in that single word—“draught.”
A pipe made on right principles is shown in section in Fig. 1. The bowl is as narrow and deep as is convenient ; the hole in the stem meets the bowl at the very bottom and in the center, thus
insuring a perfect and even draught, Fig. 1. A GOOD PIPE.
hence a complete and even burning of the Note central location of draught, causing tobacco to burn
tobacco. uniformly and completely.
The "cake" prevents the fire
from burning the bowl, and thus prevents is not only waste, but—which is worsemaking its bore larger or uneven, which spoils all the tobacco in the bowl. Not would in proportion spoil the draught. only is the tobacco burned badly, but a The sides of the bowl are thick, to keep in zone along the line of consumption is the heat, thus making the burning at the merely charred and smolders; besides same temperature at the edges of the to this, the unburned but highly heated to
bacco out of the line of draught is more or less distilled, the flavors from which mingle with those from the charred portion and the unevenly burned tobaccothe total mixture being something to weep and cough over. The same thing is noticed in the corncob pipe, Fig. 3, when the reed stem is run into the bowl only to its inner edge. Now push the reed a little farther in, and you have a good pipe, as in Fig. 4. Besides forming the “cake" common to all pipes, the corncob is light in weight, hence is easily held between the teeth ; moreover, being of a cellular structure and full of dead air, the
corncob retains the heat in the bowl, causFIG. 3. CORNCOB PIPE WITH STEM Out of Center
ing an even burning, whereas many other DRAUGHT. 1, Unevenly burned tobacco; 2, Smoldering: 3, Distilled pipe substances, like clay, iron, or a
dense, heavy wood, without the cake,
change temperature rapidly up and down bacco as in the center, and, when the the scale, almost with every puff. pipe is not puffed, preventing undue cool
All fancy types of pipes are apt to be ing. Needless to say, tobacco should be
no good whatever. The plain bowl and consumed at an even temperature; to stem, as in Fig. 1. are the best. All convary it from high to low for any cause trivances to "catch” or to "absorb” the ruins the flavor of the best kinds of the “nicotine" only drive a man to cigars or weed. It is commonly known that a out of the house. The reason of this is "cake” adds to the good smoking qualities of a pipe. This is due to two causes: the cake, being mineral, stays hot when the pipe is not puffed ; and also, being of different material from the bowl, prevents the loss of heat.
By a “cool” pipe, one means a "dry pipe;" and this all depends on the stem, not on the bowl. A “cool” pipe or a “hot” pipe has little to do with the actual heat of the smoke coming from the stem into the mouth, but almost everything to do with the chemical qualities of the smoke. Any tobacco smoked at different temperatures produces different chemical results, and the tastes of these are falsely laid to the material of the pipe
Fig. 4. CORNCOB Pipe with Stem PROPERLY PLACED. instead of to its construction.
A poor pipe—no matter if it cost $50 and was given to you by your best be- that the liquid wastes from a pipe are loved-is shown in Fig. 2. The draught mostly tar, and, if held in the pipe in is everywhere uneven ; and over half of out-of-the-way “health” corners, decay the pipe, except on the very surface, there and become a horror to the smoker. In is no burning of the tobacco at all. This a plain pipe, all this waste matter must
UJHEN last beneath the midnight stars I trod,
An awe fell on me from those depths afar-
Infinite Heart, whose pulses, like a sea,
Unspent, unbroken, everlastingly!"
Yet ever, wrapt in peace for thought too deep,
Like some small sea-bird on the waves asleep,
-S. R. CALTHORP in the Outlook.
Seeking New Things to Grow
By Dewey Sheldon Beebe
O the riddle, “Why is the in the United States comes from this
Department of Agricult- original outlay of $2,000, and the annual ure?” some scoffers have value of the sorghum crop is at least $40,been wont to reply, “Just 000,000.
'cause.” They used to But the astonishing work of the Agri
wind ridicule the agricultural cultural Department does not stop with work of the Government because they sorghum. The branch of the Departsaid there were no tangible results. But ment's work which endeavors to find new the Department, in its Yearbook for 1905, things for the farmer to grow, and to comes to the front with a "just cause” for make the United States independent of its existence. What business man in the foreign countries for all of its cereals, has United States, whether he fathers a trust been most prolific in tangible results; and or runs a corner drug store, can point to its success in transplanting alien grains a profit like this: An investment of is phenomenal, and is financially a paying $2,000 in 1864, now produces an annual proposition. income of $40,000,000? Yet this is one of There is Kafir corn, for instance. This the records of the much-maligned Agri- was introduced at a cost of about cultural Department. The Department $5,000, and was found especially suitable introduced from China and France in to the semi-arid lands of the Southwest. 1864, a comparatively small amount of The value of the present crop is over sorghum at a cost of $2,000. Now a con- $15,000,000. siderable part of the molasses consumed From $10,000 original outlay to a crop