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of $10,000,000, is the record of Durum or try by the Agricultural Department. The "Macaroni" wheat. This variety, also, value of the California crop alone of the is of special value in sections of the coun- Washington orange for the past year, try where rainfall is slight; and more was $8,000,000. than 500,000 acres of land which would Instances of this kind could be duplibe too dry for growing other kinds of cated without number, nearly every case wheat, are now under cultivation with showing a most remarkable increase in Durum.

actual commercial value of the product Increasing the value of land is another resulting from the importation by the Deof the good effects of this importation partment. Some $4,500,000 has been policy of the Government. Texas and spent in this kind of work since it was Louisiana owe much of the phenomenal begun; and the estimated annual value growth of their rice industries to the to-day of only a few of the varieties far Government's importation of Japanese exceeds the 100-million-dollar mark. Kiushu rice at a cost of $18,000. In five Wherever land has been found unyears after the transplanting of this va- suited to the everyday crops, it has been riety (1899-1904), the output of rice in the business of the Department to ascerthis country increased from 180 million tain what will grow there and will at the pounds to 550 million pounds. Even if same time be profitable for the farmer. only one-half of this increase has been Moreover, the practical value of the work due to the importation of Kiushu rice, the done is freely put within the reach of average annual value of the experiment is every individual farmer in the United about $3,000,000.

States; for he may write to the AgricultIn Wisconsin alone, the annual value ural Department at Washington, and of the crop of “Swedish Select” oats is will receive suggestions from the trained estimated at a million dollars, whereas experts there as to what is the best and the initial cost of introduction was $5,000. most profitable product to raise on his

Fultz wheat and the Washington navel particular piece of land. Here's to the orange were also introduced to this coun- farmer and his friends at Washington!

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New Use for Cotton

By Frank N. Bauskett

M

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R. HARVIE JORDAN, In addition to this, a variety of by-products,
President of the Southern

such as alcohol, nitrogen, material for gunCotton Association, de

cotton and smokeless powder, can also be

secured in paying quantities. The time is not clares that the manufact- far distant when paper plants equipped with ure of paper from fiber of all modern machinery and devices for making the cotton stalk is one of

paper and for the utilization of the other by

products referred to, will be built and placed the latest and most interesting inven

in operation throughout the cotton-growing tions of the new century. For many States of the South. The establishment of years expert inventors have been busily these mills for the manufacture of paper from engaged experimenting with the cotton cotton stalks will at once develop a new in

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dustry of quite enormous proportions, and instalk, and recent developments give as

stitute the utilization of a waste product which surance that their labors are to be re

at the present time has comparatively little or warded with signal success.

no value. It will prove the entering wedge of

checking the present increasing cost of paper, "It has been unquestionably demonstrated,"

which is becoming such a burden upon the declared Mr. Jordan, “ that all grades of paper,

newspaper industry of the country.” from the best form of linen grade to the lowest, can be manufactured from cotton stalks. It is estimated that on an area of land

COPYRIGHT, 1906, BY UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD.

COTTON-FIBER PULP READY TO BE MADE INTO PAPER.

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producing a bale of cotton, at least one The practical effect of this new inventon of stalks can be gathered. Upon this tion will be to increase the present value basis of calculation, this new industry of the cotton crop of the South by can annually depend upon from 10,000,- nearly $100,000,000 annually. The 000 to 12,000,000 tons of raw material. growers will be amply paid for the exThis will not only furnish necessary sup- pense of removing the stalks from their plies to meet all home demands, but also fields and of delivery to the paper plants, permit of the export of pulp or finished and will in addition receive a substantial products to foreign countries. At the profit on this product of their labor. With present time there is approximately the removal of the cotton stalks from the $287,000,000 invested in paper mills in fields in the early fall, the death knell of the United States, with but few plants the boll weevil will be sounded and its located in the South. The bulk of the present work of devastation stopped. . material going into the manufacture of Paper manufactured from the cotton paper at the present time is spruce, which stalk is of the strongest texture and is annually becoming more expensive, softest finish. Several plants will be owing to depletion of the forests and erected during the next few months in the high prices which such timber com- the South, which will be in full operation mands in the market for other purposes. by the first of next year.

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Are you worried by any question in Engineering or the Mechanic Arts? Put the question into writing and mail it to The Consulting Department, TECHNICAL WORLD MAGAZINE. We have made arrangements to have all such questions answered by a staff of consulting engineers and other experts whose services have been specially enlisted for that purpose. If the question asked is of general interest, the answer will be published in the magazine. If of only personal interest, the answer will be sent by mail, provided a stamped and addressed envelope is enclosed with the question. Requests for information as to whe:'e desired articles can be purchased, will also be cheerfully answered.

Tarring Fence-Posts

to remove all foreign particles. This Is coal-tar of value in prolonging the life of washing should be done by one's self, as fence-posts?-A. 0. T.

the laundered handkerchiefs are likely to A coating of tar applied to that part of contain injurious chemicals. Dampen the post which is buried in the ground part of the cloth in clean water, and adds considerably to the durability of the gently dab the lens. In this way, gritty wood. The tar protects against moisture particles are picked off without doing and other deleterious influences that rot damage. This operation completed, the the wood. While it is not at all necessary finishing touches may be put on with the that the tar should be laid on lavishly, dry part of the handkerchief. yet enough should be used to give a coating that will thoroughly penetrate the

Refrigerator without Ice grain.

Is there such a thing as an iceless refrig

erator?—E. S. L. Cleaning a Lens

What is called an "iceless refrigerat Scratched lenses on my camera convince me or” has recently been put on the market. I am not cleaning them in the right way. It is simply an ordinary ice-box, not inPlease advise me in this matter.-E. R. S. sulated, and covered with a porous mate

Lenses, as a rule, receive too much rial. Overhead is placed a pan of water rather than too little attention, and un- which is fitted with an automatic device fortunately this attention is of the wrong for periodic discharge of the water, in kind. Dust and grease alone are the order that the porous blanket may be kinds of dirt that need to be removed. remoistened. From this brief description, This is too often done by rubbing the one can readily see that the principle of surface of the lens with any cloth or rag evaporation is called into use to maintain that may happen to be conveniently near. a low temperature. The old Indian On the other hand, it is not necessary to method of suspending a jar of water in use chamois skin, which indeed is likely a wet blanket is merely repeated in anvery soon to become impregnated in its other form. On days when the hot winds turn with dust and grime. The best blow, this system of refrigeration will cleanser is an old handkerchief of soft work well; but when the atmosphere is texture that has been thoroughly washed charged with moisture and no breeze is

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