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New Use for Cotton
By Frank N. Bauskett
BR. HARVIE JORDAN,
President of the Southern Cotton Association, declares that the manufacture of paper from fiber of
the cotton stalk is one of the latest and most interesting inventions of the new century. For many years expert inventors have been busily engaged experimenting with the cotton stalk, and recent developments give assurance that their labors are to be rewarded with signal success.
"It has been unquestionably demonstrated," declared Mr. Jordan,“ that all grades of paper, from the best form of linen grade to the lowest, can be manufactured from cotton stalks.
In addition to this, a variety of by-products, such as alcohol, nitrogen, material for guncotton and smokeless powder, can also be secured in paying quantities. The time is not far distant when paper plants equipped with all modern machinery and devices for making paper and for the utilization of the other byproducts referred to, will be built and placed in operation throughout the cotton-growing States of the South. The establishment of these mills for the manufacture of paper from cotton stalks will at once develop a new industry of quite enormous proportions, and institute the utilization of a waste product which at the present time has comparatively little or no value. It will prove the entering wedge of checking the present increasing cost of paper, which is becoming such a burden upon the newspaper industry of the country.”
It is estimated that on an area of land
producing a bale of cotton, at least one The practical effect of this new inventon of stalks can be gathered. Upon this tion will be to increase the present value basis of calculation, this new industry of the cotton crop of the South by can annually depend upon from 10,000,- nearly $100,000,000 annually. The 000 to 12,000,000 tons of raw material. growers will be amply paid for the exThis will not only furnish necessary sup- pense of removing the stalks from their plies to meet all home demands, but also fields and of delivery to the paper plants, permit of the export of pulp or finished and will in addition receive a substantial products to foreign countries. At the profit on this product of their labor. With present time there is approximately the removal of the cotton stalks from the $287,000,000 invested in paper mills in fields in the early fall, the death knell of the United States, with but few plants the boll weevil will be sounded and its located in the South. The bulk of the present work of devastation stopped. material going into the manufacture of Paper manufactured from the cotton paper at the present time is spruce, which stalk is of the strongest texture and is annually becoming more expensive, softest finish. Several plants will be owing to depletion of the forests and erected during the next few months in the high prices which such timber com- the South, which will be in full operation mands in the market for other purposes. by the first of next year.
Are you worried by any question in Engineering or the Mechanic Arts? Put the question into writing and mail it to the Consulting Department. TECHNICAL WORLD MAGAZINE. We have made arrangements to have all such questions answered by a staff of consulting engineers and other experts whose services have been specially enlisted for that purpose. If the question asked is of general interest, the answer will be published in the magazine. If of only personal interest, the answer will be sent by mail, provided a stamped and addressed envelope is enclosed with the question. Requests for information as to whe.'e desired articles can be purchased, will also be cheerfully answered.
Tarring Fence - Posts
to remove all foreign particles. This Is coal-tar of value in prolonging the life of washing should be done by one's self, as fence-posts ?-A. 0. T.
the laundered handkerchiefs are likely A coating of tar applied to that part of contain injurious chemicals. Dampen the post which is buried in the ground part of the cloth in clean water, and adds considerably to the durability of the gently dab the lens. In this way, gritty wood. The tar protects against moisture particles are picked off without doing and other deleterious influences that rot damage. This operation completed, the the wood. While it is not at all necessary finishing touches may be put on with the that the tar should be laid on lavishly, dry part of the handkerchief. yet enough should be used to give a coating that will thoroughly penetrate the
Refrigerator without Ice grain.
Is there such a thing as an iceless refrig
erator?—E. S. L. Cleaning a Lens
What is called an "iceless refrigeratScratched lenses on my camera convince me or” has recently been put on the market. I am not cleaning them in the right way. It is simply an ordinary ice-box, not inPlease advise me in this matter.-E. R. S. sulated, and covered with a porous mate
Lenses, as a rule, receive too much rial. Overhead is placed a pan of water rather than too little attention, and un- which is fitted with an automatic device fortunately this attention is of the wrong for periodic discharge of the water, in kind. Dust and grease alone are the order that the porous blanket may be kinds of dirt that need to be removed. remoistened. From this brief description, This is too often done by rubbing the one can readily see that the principle of surface of the lens with any cloth or rag evaporation is called into use to maintain that may happen to be conveniently near. a low temperature. The old Indian On the other hand, it is not necessary to method of suspending a jar of water in use chamois skin, which indeed is likely a wet blanket is merely repeated in anvery soon to become impregnated in its other form. On days when the hot winds turn with dust and grime. The best blow, this system of refrigeration will cleanser is an old handkerchief of soft work well; but when the atmosphere is texture that has been tho:oughly washed charged with moisture and no breeze is
stirring, the iceless device will be of lit- temperature at which it will conduct. tle practical value.
One form of heater is made of fine platinum wire wound upon a porcelain tube
as a support and covered with porcelain To Pierce Hard Metal
paste. The heater tubes are mounted Please explain how to drill a hole in very just above the glowers in the finished hard metal.-A. V.
lamp. The heating device is connected Good tools are requisite for drilling
across the circuit when the lamp is first in hard metals. A well-hardened drill turned on, and must be cut out of circuit only should be employed. Have an
automatically when the glower becomes abundant supply of oil, and drive the
a conductor. This automatic cut-out is drill slowly but with as much force as
operated by means of an electro-magnet the point will bear. To harden the drill,
so arranged that current flows through heat to a dull glow in a charcoal flame,
its coil as soon as the glower conducts, and cool in mercury. The work will be
and opens a form of silver contact, cutfurther facilitated if the surface of the ting out the heater. The conductivity metal to be pierced is first nicked with
of the glower increases with its temperaa cold chisel. Chilled cast iron may be
ture; hence, if used on a constant-potensoftened by putting sulphur on the place tinue to increase, because of the greater
tial circuit, its temperature would conto be penetrated, and then heating the iron to a glow.
current flowing, until the glower was destroyed. To prevent this increase of current, a ballast resistance of fine iron
wire is connected in series with the Cracks in Concrete Wall
glower. The resistance of the iron wire Why is it that a concrete wall in which iron posts are set is sometimes cracked around
increases rapidly with increase of temthe posts?-H. T.
The concrete may not have been properly prepared, or it may have dried too quickly; perhaps, too, expansion joints were omitted. The wall, when newly laid, should be cut every 45 or 50 inches. These cracks should at once be filled with dry sand of a fine grain. The joints or cracks allow for the contraction or expansion of the concrete, which accompanies every change of temperature.
The Nernst Lamp They have recently installed Nernst lamps in some of the stores in our town. Will you please explain this form of light and how it operates ?-F. J. S.
The Nernst lamp is a form of incandescent lamp, using for the incandescent ma- TYPICAL DIAGRAM OF Nernst LAMP Circuit. terial certain oxides of the rare earths. The oxide is mixed in the form of a
perature, and thus prevents the increase paste, then pressed through a small ori- of current through the glowers. fice into a string, which is subjected to a The accompanying figure shows comroasting process, forming the filament or
plete connections for a 6-glower lamp. glower material of the lamp. The glow- The current enters, say, at terminal 1, ers are cut the desired length and plati- passes through the contacts of the cutnum terminals attached. As the glower out 4, to the heater circuit 5, then to conis a non-conductor when cold, some form tacts 4' and to the terminal 2. When the of heater is necessary to bring it up to a glowers become hot enough to conduct, the current divides at 1', part of it pass
The wires should then be placed in a ing through the glowers 6, the ballast 7, vise, with the ends projecting so that they and the cut-out 3, to terminal 2. When may be twisted together with a pair of the current in the glowers has reached forceps. The twist is next soldered toits normal value, the contacts at 4 and gether. To prevent rusting, resin 4' open, cutting out the heater coils en- rather than the customary acid or soldtirely.
ering fluid is the best available material. The free end of the wires should
now be drawn apart, so as to leave a Making a Thermopile
space of some four inches between the
extremities, as shown in the figure (a,b). How is a thermopile constructed and used? -F. H. N.
These extremities are next connected to The thermopile is an instrument used the terminals of a delicate galvanometer. in the production of such small, steady If the galvanometer's pointer is then currents as are required for grading del- brought to 0°, on applying fire to the icate ammeters and voltmeters. In con- junction c, a current strong enough to junction with the galvanometer, it is also deflect the pointer through 10° or 15° useful for registering minute variations
will be set up. of temperature in furnaces, where no A dozen combinations of this kind will ordinary thermometer could stand the increase the power of the arrangement. melting power of the intense heat. In In such case, vires of a length of four construction, the thermopile consists of inches should be used. A twist of threeone or more paired pieces of dissimilar fourths inch will suffice. metals. These metals are in the form of wires or blocks and are joined together at one end. Antimony and bis- Tightening Steam Joints-Lime in Pipes
How can steam joints be made tight? a
How can lime be removed from injectors and delivery pipes ?-A. G. R.
1: First, take white lead ground in oil; incorporate as much black oxide (manganese) as possible; and add a small portion of litharge. Knead it with the hand, dusting the board with red lead. Make the mass into a small roll, and put the roll on the plate after having first oiled with linseed oil. It can then be smoothed and pressed into position.
2: Mix 1 part muriatic acid to 10 parts of soft water, and let the tube remain in the mixture over night.
Use of Loam Mould Under what conditions should a loam mould be used ?-P. O. D.
Where the casting is large, and it would be too expensive to provide a pattern, loam moulds are employed. The casting, however, must be of a quite simple form, otherwise a pattern will be essential. Good results may be obtained by using a partial pattern with the loam mould. The basis of the mould is brick, over which the loam is spread.
muth have been more frequently employed than other metals.
In some respects, however, copper and nickel are more satisfactory. These metals should first be cleaned with fine emery paper.