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Sanitation at Panama houses are, in general, built of wood,
with lower floor more than a yard above ONE NE of the great difficulties and the ground. For each person, 500 cubic
sources of expense in building the feet of air space is provided. Panama Canal is the problem of sanita- Another important question is the suption. The overlooking of this feature by ply of pure drinking water. There is an the old French company cost many lives. abundance of the latter high up on the The many thousands of workers must not hills. From there it is now pumped in only be housed and fed, but also pro- large pipes to the houses. A thorough tected against those terrible enemies, yel- system of drainage also has been installed low fever and malaria. That our Gov- in Panama, Colon, and other cities. The ernment has not underestimated the im- cleaning of the streets is carried on sysportance of the hygienic problem, is seen tematically. Many swampy localities have from the many sanitary installations to been elevated with sand and gravel. be found on the Isthmus.
Against yellow fever and malaria and There were a few thousand little their chief propagators, the mosquitoes, houses left by the French company, of a real war has been raging. In the early which some have been restored and made months of the American occupation, both fit for human habitation. Also diseases prevailed to some extent on the houses and hotels have been built. The Isthmus. Now, however, they have been
brought under control. The principal method of combating them is to screen completely all houses and receptacles containing food, and to fumigate all rooms. This kills the insects inside. It was found, also, that the blood of most of the negroes contained malaria bacilli, and that any insect biting an infected negro could easily infect others, especially the whites. By destroying the mosquitoes through fumigation, and by the use of internally administered drugs in the case of the negroes, the malaria was also practically stamped out. It is estimated that $2,000,000 will be needed for completing the sanitary work in the Canal Zone.-MAX BRUNNER.
Pike's Peak Locomo
EW engines of a very interesting type
are being built for use in climbing Pike's Peak. The railroad which traverses the sides of this great mountain is known as the Manitou & Pike's Peak
600 gallons. The capacity for oil is 325 gallons. Beneath the cab floor are the oil tanks, from which the oil is fed through a heater on one side of the engine, consisting of a 1/4-inch oil pipe inside a larger pipe. The space between these pipes is filled with steam. The boilers of this odd-appearing locomotive are so set that when the engine is upon a 16 per cent grade the tubes are horizontal.-W. FRANK MCCLURE.
An A-C Detector
cuits have mostly to be switched out, Railway, and is one of the most novel thus interrupting the service, whenever roads in the world. The new locomo- the existence of an alternating current is tives, one of which is shown in the to be ascertained or its intensity measaccompanying photograph, differ from ured. An instrument recently contheir predecessors chiefly in that they structed, called an “applier,” will show burn oil instead of coal; that each of the presence of alternating currents of their axles is fitted with a driving gear, any kind, and may serve to determine which, as can be seen, lies unusually close their intensity, merely by being applied to the roadbed; and that the high- outside the circuit, thus in no way interpressure cylinders are one inch greater in fering with the service. diameter and of two inches longer stroke. This apparatus consists of a small The weight of the new engine is 60,000. transformer, the iron core of which is pounds. The tank capacity for water is divided into two pieces forming a kind from any iron protection. This condition is best complied with by applying the apparatus to safety fuses. The apparatus will prove very useful in locating ground connections for short circuits.
House Moving by
houses that house-moving is fre
quently undertaken. The crowded conHouse-MOVING ON CHICAGO RIVER,
dition of the streets, with both elevated
and trolley lines, is, however, a heavy of tongs, the jaws of which are opened obstacle. Consequently, when the buildby a pressure exerted on the legs, and ings are near the water, they are often are automatically closed again as the
carried to their new destination on scows. pressure is removed. To insure a safe The accompanying illustration shows a magnetic closure, the jaws of the tongs house being towed on the Chicago river should entirely encircle the conductors. to its new location.—W. Hild. The circuit encircled by the back part of the jaws constitutes the primary coil of the transformer; while the secondary coil,
Trackless Trolley-Car in the shape of a small bobbin, is solidly fitted to the back bolts of the jaws, being THE trackless trolley is a French and connected to the measuring instrument German novelty which is offering proper by a fine electric cable. The meas- serious competition to the regular lines, uring instrument consists of either a tele- The advantage of such a motor-car lies phone or a heating coil instrument, the in the saving in the cost of track laying former being suitable for ascertaining the and maintenance. In Germany the conexistence of considerably weaker cur- struction of a two-mile trackless trolley rents than the latter.
line cost but $35,000, as against $87,500 Whenever the intensity of a current is for the regular system between the same to be measured, the line should be free points. Moreover, in country districts
having good roads, the trackless trolleys perform a service in the marketing of farm products that the track lines cannot do. The cost of operation is low. In winter the energy required for a distance of some 28 miles is said to be about 40 cents per car -considerably less than with the usualtracklines. The rate of speed is about 512 miles per hour. The trackless trolley is almost impracticable, however, where the road surface is much broken by ruts or other irregularities.
COURTEOY OF " ELECTRICAL WORLD AND ENGINEER."
Great English Bridge around the chimney, resting upon blocks
of wood. The rods consist of several THE King Edward bridge, recently pieces, which are screwed into sockets
opened on the Northeastern Rail- and thus clamped against the brick so way at Newcastle-on-Tyne, is the great- tightly that they will sustain a very heavy est feat of British engineering since the weight. To these rods is fastened a scafForth bridge was built. It has been in folding of wood, which supports a board course of construction for over five years, platform on which the chimney makers and cost $2,500,000.
stand, and which also holds the bricks
Standing clear, 83 feet above high- and mortar. The scaffolding is further water mark, it is designed to relieve traf- strengthened by braces passed around it. fic on an older bridge lying half a mile to When the courses of brick are laid up so the east. The total length is 2,500 feet. far that the scaffold is inconvenient to Four lines of railway cross over.
The work from, another set of rods are bolted main portion of the bridge consists of around the chimney, and the scaffolding four spans of steel girder work, 231, 300, elevated into its new position piece by 300, and 191 feet long, respectively. The approach consists of masonry arches. An unusual feature in the construction of this bridge was that electricity was extensively employed in the work. With great pomp, King Edward opened the bridge for traffic, he being the first passenger to cross.
Building a Chimney MANY (ANY of us who have seen factory
chimneys projecting into the air, some a hundred feet and over, may have wondered how they could be constructed so solidly, yet without being crooked. The accompanying photograph gives an idea of how they are built. When the brickwork is completed a few feet above the ground, rods of iron are fastened
piece. Sometimes a new scaffold is built, the old one being left in place, the men reaching the other by means of ladders, as shown in the picture. The bricks and mortar are raised from the ground by means of a rope passing over a pulley inserted in a beam projecting above the scaffold.
Saves from Flames CONTRARY to the mode of operation
of other inventions of its kind, a fire-escape that is to be used, not by the
Telescope FIRE-ESCAPE, CLOSED. imperiled person himself, but by his rescuers, is here shown. The invention is in the nature of a substantial, portable The apparatus is known as the "teleladder not partaking of the flimsy char- scope" fire-escape, from the way it is acter of those devices which one is sup- opened and closed. It is drawn about on posed to carry about with him in his a truck, and requires a somewhat elabtrunk or suit-case.
orate system of machinery for its. operation. The illustrations show the fire-escape closed; also as it is when it has been released and extended up the side of a building. Where there is no fire-escape attached to the building, or where it is necessary to fasten several ladders together, the telescope method should prove invaluable.
New Way to Waves FOR electricity, still another use has
been found-namely, in the launching of vessels. The British battleship Agamemnon, recently launched, slid to the water by this new method. A series of interlocking levers were connected with the electrical arrangement. The Countess of Aberdeen, who performed the ceremony, turned a wheel which controlled the apparatus, thus closing the circuit and releasing the triggers that held the manof-war on either hand. The time occupied by the ceremony was very brief. From the instant the Countess put her hand to the wheel, to the ship's clearing the ways, was a matter of but one minute and fifty seconds.
To safeguard against the contingency of the vessel's not starting of herself, powerful hydraulic rams were placed, one on each side of the vessel. No use was found, however, for either of these.