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When the brine left in the pre-heaters that it acts as an oven, and actually has acquired the requisite temperature, makes salt on its sides. Why, even after it is allowed to flow into a grainer, al- the steam is turned off, the grainer goes most filling it. Exhaust steam is turned on making salt for an hour or so. We on, and, passing through the steam have had to put on scrapers to remove the pipes in the grainer, continues the heat- salt from the sides of the grainers"ing of the brine until a degree almost at his eyes twinkled as he added—“a device boiling point is reached, when crystalliza- of my own which saves the wages of tion begins. This is a most interesting three or four men."


Showing salt being brought up by automatic rakes and deposited over edge into conveyors below. Ram

operating conveyors is shown in right foreground.

action. Watching the steaming surface In this salt works, anything that saves of the brine, a pellicle of salt forms, manual labor or in any way tends to rewhich soon breaks and sinks down, to duce the cost of making salt is hailed be followed by another, and the crystal- with delight by this skilled mechanic and lization then proceeds rapidly.

his assistants. It is this extreme rapidity of crystal- It is a fact that the estimated capacity lization in the concrete grainers that has of each grainer, of 100 barrels every 24 astonished the oldest salt-makers and hours, is being greatly exceeded, and made glad the directors of the Plate more than 130 barrels is being made. Glass Company.

The salt accumulates rapidly on the "No such fast salt-making was ever floor of the grainer; and to remove it known before," said salt-maker Mason. there have been installed Wilcox auto"It beats all, how the crystals form on matic submerged rakes, which are placed the bottom and sides of the grainer. I beneath the steam pipes, and which may never saw anything like it, and I have be described as long, rigid frames of been making salt--and good salt, too- steel, of angle-bar construction, running for twenty-five years."

the entire length of the grainer, and slid“The secret is this,” he continued ;“the ing backward and forward along a steel concrete becomes so extremely hot from way bolted in the concrete walls, about the maintained temperature of the brine, six inches from the bottom. At intervals


ing the

of eight feet, beginning at the extreme back end of the grainer, are hung crosswise rakes of bar steel, about six inches wide, hinged to turn upward and forward. This steel frame with the rakes is attached at the front end to a hydraulic ram, with nine-foot stroke, so that with each forward movement of the ram, the salt gathered by each rake is moved nine feet along the floor of the grainer.

i The return stroke places the rake next in front one foot behind the little pile of salt, 12 feet long, the width of the grainer, the hinged rake slipping over, and the operation is resumed. This goes

REAR END OF SALT BLOCK. on continually through the whole length

Showing asbestos-covered main pipe into which all enof the grainer, a complete stroke requir

gines of the glass works exhaust. Smaller pipes

over passageway are feed-pipes supplying about three minutes.

grainers." The last rake at the front end brings up the accumulated salt on a slight in- on other belts and carried along to any cline, draining off the brine, and dump- part of the building desired, and then ing it over the edge into a wood con- allowed to slip off, forming huge piles. veyor below.

The power driving these belts is furThe steam pipes, rakes, and all metal nished by a number of electric motors parts exposed to the brine and salt are located at convenient places in the buildheavily galvanized to prevent rust, for ing. a particle of rust will ruin a quantity of When the salt has passed the State insalt.

spection, it is branded with the State and The twelve hydraulic rams are actu- company brands and is ready for shipated by a large three-cylinder pump ment. If loaded in bulk in cars, the driven by a 20-horse-power electric, operation is simply to run a pair of motor, direct-connected. This pump bucket-conveyors into the car; and in a can be operated at various speeds, but short time, thirty tons or more have been the usual pressure to the rams is 68 to 70 transferred from the hillsides of salt. pounds.

The usual practice, however, is shipment As the salt drops into the conveyors, in .barrels, even though a barrel costs which are 12 inches wide and 20 inches twice as much as the salt it contains. deep, automatic rakes carry it along to The filling is done by automatic maa series of hoppers set in the bottom of chinery, by which the barrels are conthe conveyor at intervals of 25 feet. Be

veyed on narrow, moving platforms unneath the hoppers are fast-running rub- der the bucket-conveyors, which deposit ber belts 15 inches wide, which catch the the product to the required weight, 280 salt and carry it into the storage build- pounds, and move it along to a heading ing

machine, which sets the barrel-head and This large storage house, 200 feet long stamps the brand thereon. It is then by 120 feet wide, with concrete floor, ad- carried on the platform to the car door. joins the front of the salt block, and has Thus is the saline product of the earth a capacity of 45,000 barrels.

placed on your table, delivered to meat The salt, as it enters on the belt, is and fish packing establishments, or made caught up by vertical conveyors and ready for other uses of mankind, enlifted to the ceiling, where it is deposited tirely by mechanical means.

Queer Things Made from Milk

By M. Glen Fling


HEN a large Austrian he questioned. "Celluloid," came the

novelty house prompt and confident reply. “Wrong; it
nered the skim milk is milk, skimmed milk, Sir!"
market recently, deal- Billiard balls: dolls' heads; white
ers and public won- handles for golf sticks, umbrellas, and
dered what on earth canes; salt and pepper shakers; pen
the concern would do holders; ink wells; fancy boxes for
with the thousands gloves, handkerchiefs, and ties; card
of gallons of the cases; cigarette holders; and various
liquid which were other novelties, all seemingly made of

shipped to them celluloid, were strewn about; and the daily. The 267 employees could not pos- visitor was told that each and every arsibly drink such a quantity; and although ticle was made from those gallons of it has long been known that milk will skimmed milk which were shipped to the cleanse certain metals, the company company every day. would find it impossible to use up those What Austria has been doing for a hundreds of cans in this way, even number of years, other countries are now though they put the entire force to scour- successfully attempting. ing eight hours a day.

We have right here in our own land, What, then, could be the use to which besides those mentioned, a number of this great ocean of skimmed milk was other articles made from skimmed milk. put? When questioned on the matter, Many objects which are called "imitathe proprietor of the establishment tion ivory” are really made from a subsmiled mysteriously, and beckoned the stance the chief ingredient of which is visitor into one of the storerooms. milk. Door-knobs, mantelpieces, clocks,

Here he picked up a billiard ball. piano keys, paper racks, pin heads, col"What do you suppose this is made of?" lar buttons, fancy buttons, picture

[graphic][merged small]

WHERE SKIIMED MILK IS TURNED INTO GALALITH. In tank at left, the powdered casein is sifted, and, after being mixed with formaline and drying, becomes a horn-like

substance, named "galalith," which provides a valuable substitute for bone, ivory, etc.

frames, and innumerable other articles on formaline and poured out on marble the market, which the purchaser believes slabs to dry. The formaline solidifies the to be made of bone or ivory or celluloid, powdered casein, and forms it into a are really cut from galalith or "milk horn-like substance, which has been stone,” which is a composition of skim-, given the name of "galalith." med milk and formaline.

Galalith can again be mixed with other Milk stone, or galalith, as the substance substances and worked over into a mais known, is made by a very simple proc- terial which forms a substitute for bone, ess. The equipment of the manufactory ivory, celluloid, marble, hard rubber, and consists of a huge tank, into which the even amber. milk is pumped; and connected with this There is really no limit to the articles by means of an inclined trough, is an- which can be made from galalith. It other tank with a wide, square opening. takes dyes readily, and inferior grades Over this opening are placed, one about are colored. The best remain white, two inches above another, three wire however, for white galalith brings the sieves, varying in fineness, the lowest highest price because of its similarity to one being of very close mesh.

ivory. The first grade of white galalith From a huge vat into which certain is made up into knife-handles, and it chemicals have been poured, the milk is brings almost as high a figure as would pumped through short pipes into the first so much ivory. tank mentioned, where it is threshed Galalith is the best substitute for ivory about by a glass paddle for fif- ever discovered, for it is smooth to the teen minutes. The bung-hole of the touch, retains its soft, creamy tinting for tank is then opened, and what was once years, is not marred by soap and water, milk is forced out by air-pressure in the and, unlike celluloid, is proof against fire. form of a yellowish brown powder. It does not chip or crack like bone, and This is called chemically treated "case- can be cut into the most delicate shapes, in;" and it is sent down the inclined being tough and not easily broken. trough, through the three sieves, to the For piano keys it has no peer outside second, tank, where it is mixed with the the genuine ivory, and that is rather diffi


as food

and the selling price of butter as on the profits derived from the skimmed milk. The right market for

for the milk skimmed for the purpose of butter-making, is really the vital question of the milk industry to-day. Years ago the skimmed milk was either thrown away or given to the pigs; and although these useful animals consume vast quantities of the chalk-like liquor, skimmed milk is now used for thousand different purposes—for the manufacture of sugar of milk, for many animals besides pigs, and for a very delicious beverage poetically called "milk champagne,” which is skimmed milk with fruit juices impregnated

with carbonic acid. A rather large ferWHERE THE Milk is SOLIDIFIED,

centage of skimmed milk is also sepShowing milk "closet” (at right) and “blower" (at left), arated into its component parts, which where the powdered milk is sent in last step in hardening process.

are then worked up. The "casein” serves

for the manufacture of cheese ; also for cult to secure, elephant hunters growing glue, putty, and other substances. But fewer each year, and those still in the all these different uses of skimmed milk business demanding almost prize money did not solve the question favorably unfor their work. To be sure, a single ele- til the invention of galalith, which is phant's tusk will make about 96 sets of just what the material scientists have keys; and it may be that the highest- been waiting for during the last quarter priced pianos will always have ivory of a century. The insolubility of galalith, keys; but it is pretty safe to wager that its easy working, elasticity, and proof when next you play a Chopin nocturne against fire, make it a very desirable on a concert piano, you will run your product. fingers over keys of galalith.

In Austria, something like 100,000 Each year in Vienna, there is held a quarts of skimmed milk are used daily popular and an important festival known for the purpose of making galalith, and as “Creamery Day," the object of which the industry is largely on the increase. is to gather together all the latest Factories have been erected for turning achievements in dairy products, for ex- galalith into all sorts of useful objects. hibition purposes. Last year, on Cream- Its great strength even allows it to be ery Day, Mr. Maximilian Ripper, as- used in place of stone and marble. You sistant at the Agricultural Experiment could build a house of milk if you liked, Station of London, had on hand some specimens of galalith; and, exhibiting these, he gave a talk on the value of skimmed milk, which interested scientists of many countries.

Mr. Ripper said it was a well-known fact that the success of a creamery — where the chief source of profit is, of course, butter-does not depend so much upon the cost of production



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