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WHERE SKILIMED MILK IS TURNED INTO GALALITH. In tank at left, the powdered casein is sifted, and, after being mixed with formaline and drying, becomes a horn-like

substance, named "galalith," which provides a valuable substitute for bone, ivory, etc.

frames, and innumerable other articles on formaline and poured out on marble the market, which the purchaser believes slabs to dry. The formaline solidifies the to be made of bone or ivory or celluloid, powdered casein, and forms it into a are really cut from galalith or “milk horn-like substance, which has been stone,” which is a composition of skim- given the name of “galalith.” med milk and formaline.

Galalith can again be mixed with other Milk stone, or galalith, as the substance substances and worked over into a mais known, is made by a very simple proc- terial which forms a substitute for bone, ess. The equipment of the manufactory ivory, celluloid, marble, hard rubber, and consists of a huge tank, into which the even amber. milk is pumped ; and connected with this There is really no limit to the articles by means of an inclined trough, is an- which can be made from galalith. It other tank with a wide, square opening. takes dyes readily, and inferior grades Over this opening are placed, one about are colored. The best remain white, two inches above another, three wire however, for white galalith brings the sieves, varying in fineness, the lowest highest price because of its similarity to one being of very close mesh.

ivory. The first grade of white galalith From a huge vat into which certain is made up into knife-handles, and it chemicals have been poured, the milk is brings almost as high a figure as would pumped through short pipes into the first so much ivory. tank mentioned, where it is threshed Galalith is the best substitute for ivory about by a glass paddle for fif- ever discovered, for it is smooth to the teen minutes. The bung-hole of the touch, retains its soft, creamy tinting for tank is then opened, and what was once years, is not marred by soap and water, milk is forced out by air-pressure in the and, unlike celluloid, is proof against fire. form of a yellowish brown powder. It does not chip or crack like bone, and This is called chemically treated "case- can be cut into the most delicate shapes, in;" and it is sent down the inclined being tough and not easily broken. trough, through the three sieves, to the For piano keys it has no peer outside second, tank, where it is mixed with the the genuine ivory, and that is rather diffi

in hardening process.

and the selling price of butter as on the profits derived from the skimmed milk. The right market for the milk skimmed for the purpose of butter-making, is really the vital question of the milk industry to-day. Years ago the skimmed milk was either thrown away or given to the pigs; and although these useful animals consume vast quantities of the chalk-like liquor, skimmed milk is now used for a thousand different purposes—for the manufacture of sugar of milk, as food for many animals besides pigs, and for a very delicious beverage poetically called "milk champagne," which is skimmed milk with fruit juices impregnated

with carbonic acid. A rather large ferWHERE THE Milk is SOLIDIFIED.

centage of skimmed milk is also sepShowing milk "closet" (at right) and “blower" (at left), arated into its component parts, which where the powdered milk is sent in last step

are then worked up. The "casein” serves

for the manufacture of cheese ; also for cult to secure, elephant hunters growing glue, putty, and other substances. But fewer each year, and those still in the all these different uses of skimmed milk business demanding almost prize money did not solve the question favorably unfor their work. To be sure, a single ele- til the invention of galalith, which is phant's tusk will make about 96 sets of just what the material scientists have keys; and it may be that the highest- been waiting for during the last quarter priced pianos will always have ivory

ivory of a century. The insolubility of galalith, keys; but it is pretty safe to wager that its easy working, elasticity, and proof when next you play a Chopin nocturne against fire, make it a very desirable on a concert piano, you will run your product. fingers over keys of galalith.

In Austria, something like 100,000 Each year in Vienna, there is held a quarts of skimmed milk are used daily popular and an important festival known for the purpose of making galalith, and as “Creamery Day," the object of which the industry is largely on the increase. is to gather together all the latest Factories have been erected for turning achievements in dairy products, for ex- galalith into all sorts of useful objects. hibition purposes. Last year, on Cream- Its great strength even allows it to be ery Day, Mr. Maximilian Ripper, as- used in place of stone and marble. You sistant at the Agricultural Experiment could build a house of milk if you liked, Station of London, had on hand some specimens of galalith; and, exhibiting these, he gave a talk on the value of skimmed milk, which interested scientists of many countries.

Mr. Ripper said it was a well-known fact that the success of a creamery - - where the chief source of profit is, of course, butter—does not depend so much upon the cost of production


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Birds Our Flying Models

By W. G. Fitz-Gerald

CIENTISTS of Euro- Therefore, some highly interesting expean reputation, like periments have just been undertaken by Mr. C. G. Lamb, M. A., some members of the Aëronautical SociUniversity Lecturer in ety of Great Britain, including Mr. E. P. Electrical Engineering Frost, Mr. F. W. H. Hutchinson, and at Cambridge, consider Mr. C. R. D'Esterre, with an experiit to be of great impor- mental flying-machine model whose actance, in connection tion is scientifically based upon the move

with any serious at- ments of birds' wings. The experimenttempt to solve the problem of aërial loco- ers have collected a vast mass of data on motion, that investigation should first of the subject, including the studies of Mr. all be made by experiments as to whether Hargrave of New South. Wales, and the lines of design should proceed on those of M. Marey, whose work Le Vol those seen in nature or on entirely dif- des Oiseaux is a standard authority. ferent lines.

The wing of a bird may be said to


Beginning of novel experiment that may ultimately lead to practical results in aëronautics.

In regard to the problem of propulsion have two portions. First, we have the in water, the exigencies of mechanical section extending to the outer side of the construction have rendered it impossible wrist-joint. The principal feathers of to follow the method found in nature, this part usually number about ten, and since in that case the flexibility of the are known as "primary feathers." Then moving body is an essential. But in the there is the inner side of the wrist-joint, case of birds and insects, this confine- known as the “body” of the wing. If ment to an imitation of their methods of the primary feathers are examined, it progression does not arise.

will be seen that each differs from its


FIG. 2. MAKING ADJUSTMENTS FOR FLIGHT. The operator is about to start the wings of the weird, bird-like machine, which is made to roll along the ground

at the operator's will.

fellow in a graduated series, and the conducted some curious experiments with curves are more pronounced midway be- small birds, by liberating them in paper tween the wrist and the shoulder-joint. tubes the internal surfaces of which were

Mr. Frost, after years of observation coated with lamp black. of the structure of natural wings of all It was found that the wing as a whole kinds, and of their movement in flight, is essentially an elastic structure; and concluded more than twenty years ago, during flapping flight the primary feaththat, in the ordinary flight of a bird, the ers automatically exert a clawing, swimwing is merely beaten up and down, so ming action. It was obvious to obserythat a lift and a drive are obtained. The ers, too, that a bird's wing, both as a wing is so shaped that the down stroke gliding and as a propelling surface, is a encounters much greater resistance than beautifully efficient instrument. the up stroke, apart from the question of To test these views, Messrs. Frost, energy; and Mr. Frost contended that Hutchinson, and D'Esterre arranged the the primary feathers are so arranged that apparatus shown in Fig. 1. on being struck downward in the air A pair of dried natural wings about their ends travel forward and upward. three square feet in area, were arranged For example, in flight, the wing-tips of with a small electric motor and a reducthe rook can be seen to be curled upward. tion gear so that they flapped up and

Marey obtained confirmation of this by down, the whole concern being susfixing a piece of white paper to the tip pended by a spring balance from the balof the first primary of a black crow, anced arm. With 24 volts, a maximum which was then caused to fly in front of lifting power of five pounds was devela dark screen, when the lens was exposed oped (350-400 flaps per minute). The during five beats of the wing. Major effect was most curious. The huge “bird" B. Baden-Powell, the well-known aëro- flapped itself round and round, although naut and inventor of military kites, also it sagged heavily between the down

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