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and in Europe. An experimental one Baltimore. It is one of the modern was made the subject of exhaustive tests achievements whose perfection is due to in Germany, France, and England; and the labors of others besides the inventor. actual telegraphic work is now being The present standardized machine is the done in this country, the operation in all result of the combined efforts of a corps cases being entirely satisfactory and very of skilled engineers and a force of exgratifying in its results. An octoplex in- pert designers. stallation which has been in use in Italy The advantages of the system as they for three years, afforded an excellent il- have been proved in commercial use, may lustration of the advantages possessed by be summed up as follows: the Rowland system during the recent 1. It is operated by employees uneruptions of Vesuvius. All wires in com- skilled in the telegraphic code. munication with Naples except that used 2. It records and checks errors, and by the

Rowland apparatus were in- enables these to be easily traced to their adequate. This Rowland dispatched the source. correspondence easily and promptly on 3. The operator attains a higher averone wire, telegrams being transmitted at age rate of speed than the Morse operathe rate of 8,000 per 24 hours.

tor. The Rowland system has been devel- 4. The wire is made to carry double oped without publicity or advertising, the number of telegrams. and at great expense.

The invention 5. The system operates in full capacity promises to reflect great credit both upon through varying weather and at times its birthplace, the Johns Hopkins Uni- when the Morse and others are cripversity, and the place of its development, pled.

Ills That Fret Us
PHAT rainbow painted on a summer sky,

A seeming arch from mountain to the main,
When science puts her glass unto my eye,

Is but a sun ray in a drop of rain.
A cloud that hủng above my happy day,

And seemed to bring the dark of night too near.
When heaven flashed a light across my way,

Was but a ray of doubt within a tear.

Wax-Farming in China

By Lillian E. Zeb


MONG the novel occupa- cargoes in proper time for the hatching-
tions in China, but little out season.
known if at all to the out- An explorer for the Museum of Nat-
side world, is that of the ural History has just brought back some
wax-farmer. The most specimens of the wax-covered branches

remarkable feature in con- taken from the field, and the only ones to nection with this industry is that the reach this country so far. Photographs owner's entire crop is produced by the of the strange creature itself, and other free labor of myriads of little insects, characteristic views, are shown and dewhose eggs or cocoons, deposited on the scribed here for the first time. limbs and branches, yield a rich harvest,.. Comparatively little is known of this which is transformed into pure white peculiar and valuable insect of China, wax and marketed at a fair price. Equally though it is found also in Japan. In both odd and fantastic are the midnigl t jour countries it selects different trees to feed


A CHINESE WAX-FARMER AT WORK. He is arranging the little insect workers on the trees in the way that will best produce the strange harvest.

neys of the agile and sure-footed porters, upon. This insect is about the size of a who are forced to hurry along as fast as mosquito. The male has a head nearly possible with their loads of insects on triangular and of a light orange color. their backs, hundreds of miles, across The antennæ are long and composed of steep and rocky mountain passes, ascend- segments, comparatively long, light ing and descending precipitous places brown, and covered with grayish hair. which no animal or conveyance could tra- The first pair lie far apart from the othverse with safety, in order to land their ers. The four wings are long, oval, and


stages of molting, and vary but slightly in structure and size from the male. The males appear about the last of September or beginning of October, and flit around the young females, who are already attached to the stems and branches.

The tree which produces the white wax insect is grown in the Chien-Chang valley in the western part of China, which is some 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. In March, round, brown forms are seen attached to the limbs and branches. If one of these should be opened, it would be found to contain innumerable white insects. By a strange law, the insect will not flourish or produce wax in its birthplace, and, if allowed to remain, will drop off in a dead mass. The Chinese, with clever instinct, have discovered the exact locality where they will flour

ish to the best advantage, and have Wax-MAKING INSECT IN VARIOUS STAGES OF Its started breeding the insect and cultivat

ing the particular food plant upon which

it thrives and deposits the wax-making quite transparent. The female is globu- cocoons. Transporting the females to lar in form, and dark reddish brown in the various farming places some two to color. The flattened-out inner-bodies are four hundred miles distant in the Provalmost oval in shape, and have a large ince of Sze-Chuan, gives employment hollow space wide enough to protect during the season to thousands of pormany thousand eggs. If the insect is re- ters. moved from the stem, the eggs fall freely One of these wax-making centers is off. The female begins to lay eggs about Kia-Ting. About the first of May the May 1, and the young larvæ commence to female is nearly grown, and the body is hatch out the beginning of June. The almost conical, with a round base. Later larvæ crawl about over every branch, on it becomes mature, and begins to deand, after molting, pass to the second stage of growth.

In the latter part of August the male larvæ of the second stage are completely imprisoned within an oval cocoon, formed by snowy white filaments, secreted by the dermal glands. Usually large numbers of the oval, flattened cocoons completely surround the stems and branches. A few days after remaining in this state, the winged insect appears through a slit-like opening at the free edge of the cocoon. The females


The branches here shown were imported directly from China, with wax exactly go through the same

as left by the wax-making insect,

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posit eggs. At this time the operation it would have a tendency to develop them of removing the females from the limbs too fast. and branches to which they are attached, It is customary, as the season apand of getting them ready to turn over proaches when the wax messengers are to the porter for transit, is commenced. due, for the various cities and villages They are thereafter carried hundreds of along the route to leave their gates operi, miles away, to where the wax-farmers so as to afford free and unobstructed pas

sageway to the carriers. Seen at night running with all their might, dressed in most cases in rainproof straw suits, their flickering lanterns swaying to and fro with the motion of their bodies, they form a weird and picturesque sight. On they go, traversing rocky paths and lofty ascents of the Sze-Chuani mountains, never stopping until the break of day, when they huddle up under cover of a shady retreat, where their baskets can be protected from the heat.

They then prepare their meals, and await the coming of the night to continue their lonely and tiresome journey. On reaching their destination, they immediately go to their masters or other agents, who have been awaiting their arrival. The baskets of insects are forthwith distributed to the respective farmers, who proceed at once to place the insects upon the food plant. They are tied on the branches in small bags made of leaves, where the heat of the sun hatches them. In these bags, holes are made with a blunt needle, so that the insects may find their way out. When first hatched, they creep rapidly up to the leaves of the food plant, where they nestle for nearly two weeks. After this they begin to scatter and crawl along the branches. The fe

males, after a short period, begin to lay Disc OF INSECT-MADE WHITE Wax; ALSO TEMPLE CANDLES MADE FROM SAME MATERIAL.

their eggs, and the males deposit white

cocoons, which in time completely coat have rows of the special food plant, a every branch and stem. It is the cocoon species of flowering ash five or six feet of the male which yields the wax. By high, upon which the insects feed and the first of September the whole tree is deposit their layers of wax.

literally covered with layers of pure white The insects are first tied up in a leaf wax a quarter of an inch thick. This is of the wood-oil tree. A number are then a beautiful sight; and were it not for the placed in a gourd-like receptacle. These temperature of the air, one might readily are then packed into two large bamboo imagine there had been a recent snowbaskets, and carried suspended on the storm in the vicinity. The farmers cut shoulders. Many thousands of insects off the branches, and scrape them. are taken in this way by each man on a The cultivation and preparation for trip.

market furnish employment to a large The porters have to travel entirely at number of industrial workers, who connight with their delicate and precious vert the wax into candles for house and loads, for the mid-day heat would be street lanterns, also for the making of dangerous to the lives of the inmates, as temple images and other articles con

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your mouth with the golf ball-in short, for the multitudia handful of wheat and nous uses to which present-day civilizachew it for a short time, tion puts rubber. How urgent the need your teeth will become is generally regarded, may be realized clogged with a a sticky, when we learn that in England alone the pulpy mass that closely records of the Patent Office show that

resembles rubber. The 315 inventors believe they have found a phenomenon will doubtless afford you a substitute for the real article. None of moment's idle wonder—but probably these, however, has really been satisfacnothing more. To Mr. William Threl- tory. They have all failed to take, sucfall Carr, an English inventor, the ad- cessfully, the place of the genuine subhesive property of the substance dis- stance. The striking feature about Mr. closes vast commercial possibilities. To Carr's product, it should be borne well him it means rubber—not merely the in- in mind, is that it is not a substitute for adequate substitute of the Patent Office, rubber; it is rubber itself. but the genuine, practical product used in It was by accident that Mr. Carr made industry.

the first step in his great discovery. He The importance of the discovery can was but a small boy then. Passing one scarcely be overestimated, coming as it day through a field of wheat, he plucked does at a time when the world is anx- a few grains of the cereal, and, chewing iously asking from where its future sup- them, formed the glutinous compound so plies of rubber are to come. In half a familiar to every country lad. Many decade, it is said, the annual consump- years later, recalling his early experition of the elastic material will be at ence, he began putting his theory to the least 80,000 tons. Even 100,000 tons is test. His first laboratory was a small regarded by many as a conservative esti- shed in his back yard; his apparatus, a mate. A rubber famine looms porten- coffee-grinder and a kettle of hot water. tously. Probably thousands of enterpris- Later, he was able to obtain the use of ing inventors have racked their brains to the best shops and laboratories in Engfind a substitute for the automobile tire, land.

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