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ANCIENT GREEK TYPES OF ORDNANCE, RECONSTRUCTED. 1-Euthytonon, for projecting arrows. 2-Palintonon, for projecting stone bullets at an inclination of about 40 degrees, 3-Onager, only weapon based on stick-catapult principle, projected stone or lead bullets in a steep arc
with only one projecting arm.
Handling Mail by Machinery
By Max A. R. Brunner
HE displacement of human Chicago Postoffice is a unique example of
labor by machinery devel- a new attempt to replace the human hand ops more and more every by machines. The basement and the year. We now see work first and second floors are filled with so done by mechanical means many mechanical appliances that these
which for centuries had places make the impression of a busy been done by hand and which did not working factory rather than a governseem suitable for machinery. The new ment postoffice.
MAIL-HANDLING MACHINERY IN CHICAGO POSTOFFICE.
The accompanying photographs show as very few people know, are the doortwo views of these belts and conveyors way to the mechanical equipment underfor mail bags. Along the east front of neath. These boxes open over chutes the large building are 14 heavy metal down which the mail wagon drivers boxes standing on the sidewalk, which, throw their filled bags. At the inclined
bottom of these chutes are two-ton weigh-hoppers, to discharge the mail upon tables. In the first picture, it can be seen that the front hopper has the doors closed; while the second and fourth have their doors opened to allow the mail-bags to fall upon the wooden table in front. The doors have a counterweight which swings around, and the weight of the bags is each time accurately recorded and filed in the postoffice, this record forming the basis of the cost for handling the mail matter. The sacks are then placed by hand upon the continuously moving large belt which runs along the chutes under the sidewalk. The belt is not of the trough-type, but is flat; and it moves between wooden sills which are stationary and which serve to keep the sacks upon the belt. At the end of this belt in the background, the mail-bags are discharged automatically upon an inclined elevators and other conveyors. One view each four horse-power; the drop-letter shows the double conveyor for carrying conveyors, each four horse-power, which, drop-letters and packages from the first together with the basement mechanical to the second floor. The horizontal belt appliances, makes a total of 100 horserequires two horse-power; the elevators, power consumed.
conveyor of the type shown in the secINCLINED CONVEYOR POR MAIL-BAGS AND DROP-Letters. ond picture, and then pass to numerous
Trained Nurses in Schools
By H. D. Jones
HE staff of the well-regu- where such an expert attendant has been lated school of the fu- installed, the usefulness of the nurse has ture will include a become so apparent that others are to be trained nurse. Already added to the various schools until all are has one been appointed supplied.
to a Philadelphia school, The particular nurse who is seen at in recognition of the urgent advice of a work in the accompanying illustrations recent congress of medical men. It is is a capable person, and can be depended manifestly absurd, if not worse, con- upon to act without hesitation in the abtended the doctors, to try to force an sence of the medical attendant of the ailing child to understand the lesson be- school. She has a dispensary in a little fore the class; and too often a boy or girl is threatened with punishment by an overwrought teacher, when the fact is that the youngster is sick, not stupid, but is too shy or too dull to explain matters.
Also it is becoming alarmingly apparent to the directors of public schools, that in the poorer districts children are frequently sent to school by ignorant parents, actually suffering from a contagious disease. In such cases it is. not the fault of the teacher if the emergency is not recognized at once. A trained nurse is the proper person to be on the spot and to be made responsible. In
VACCINATING SCHOOLBOYS. the Philadelphia school Boy with bared arm has just been operated on; others are waiting their turn.
room adjoining one of the classrooms, nurse speedily sets matters right and and here the sick child is taken at once sends the child home or back to the classfor treatment. If it is a case of throat room as the case requires. or ear affection, the nurse administers By a recent order of the Board of Edthe right remedy; if it is merely a child's ucation the regular medical attendant of ailment, a headache, or a cut finger, the the schools is forbidden to do anything
tut diagnose the case and prescribe for the patient. The nurse must do the administering. The doctor who examined school children prior to the issuing of this order, merely advised that the child be sent home, if he deemed the case sufficiently serious. Too often this only aggravated the trouble, for in many cases the home was a far less attractive place to the sick child than the schoolroom, and the result of ignorance and neglect would be a hospital case. Under the new arrangement the doctor advises the nurse, the nurse attends to the child's ailment, and overworked mothers and hospital attendants are spared much unnecessary anguish.
The child who faints in school usually causes a semi-panic among the other children, and the teacher is not supposed to be an expert in nervous troubles. The
trained nurse can be called in to grapple EXAMINING FOR THROAT AFFECTION.
with such an unusual situation, and should be able to detect the cause of the quarters; and the presence of a trained trouble if it is an overheated condition nurse, calm, clear-headed, and knowing of the room, or—as is not infrequently'. exactly how to act in such an emergency, the case—a lack of nourishment of the will prove invaluable when every school patient. Such things occur almost daily is equipped with the department that has among the crowded schools of the poorer been added to the city establishment.