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behind the dikes in a line of floating pipes, 2,000 feet long.

In the work of excavation, there were employed, altogether, 46 dredges and elevators and 247 steamers and vessels of all sorts. There were also 94 loco-. motive engines and 2,756 trucks employed to remove the dredged material. In some of the low lands much difficulty was experienced in digging out the earth, but the difficulty was not so much an engineering


for ingenuity to surSuction pipe drawn up out of service,

mount. The sandy sills are 333 feet below the normal low- soil, formerly the bed of the water level. The embankments of the and sometimes containing an admixtcanal are for the most part in low ground; ure of clay, lay at a depth of 26 to and the slopes are protected by stone, 33 feet below the surface; and the bed pitching from 672 feet below the water of the canal is, therefore, on firm ground. to 3'4 feet above it. The sharpest curve But above this, the clay was soft and has 3,300 feet radius; and at all curves overlaid by a bed of marshy soil, floating the canal is widened, according to the sand, and sedge peat, between sixteen curvature, from 374 feet to 5272 feet. and twenty-six feet thick. This material

From its commencement near Bruns- was too soft to form the banks of the büttel, the canal runs northeasterly, the canal, which had to be made of sand route lying chiefly through marshes and brought from the rear. shallow lakes and along river valleys. About four miles inland from BrunsTwo-thirds of the total excavation was büttel, it began to be necessary to make mainly of boulder clay, with layers of the dikes for the canal by depositing the liquid peat and sand, and could be excevated in the dry. This excavated material was used partly for raising the tracts of land by the sides of the canal, and partly for filling the lakes through which the canal passed. One-third of the excavation was of boggy soil and had to be dredged, a portion of this material being afterwards carried into the open sea. So little consistence had this boggy soil that in places—such as the Meckel Moor, for

Long Discharge PIPES OF HYDRAULIC DREDGE. example—it was carried

Dredges of this type were first used in the construction of the Kiel Canal.

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clay excavated in the rear. These sank then resorted to in place of the clay. deeper and deeper as Kudan Lake When the ground was sufficiently firm to was approached, and frequent slips support a 2-foot-gauge railroad and occurred when the soil

small trucks carrying about 17 cubic feet cavated between them. Sand

of sand, tracks were laid, and a mattress




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· of sand three feet thick and fifty feet by the Canal Commission. Each of the

broad was deposited, after the turf had dormitories generally contained 100 beds, first been removed. As this sand mat- arranged in fourteen rooms. The sanitress was laid, it gradually sank, heaving tary conditions were excellent, and very up the soft ground on both sides it. little sickness prevailed. During an outWhen the ground became too soft to sup- break of smallpox in the district through port even 2-foot-gauge railroad, which the canal passed, so stringent were a railroad


piles, the measures taken by the canal officials or,

done in the Ku- that scarcely a case developed among the dan Lake, on floats, and the sand tipped laborers. Not only were there elaborate over from the truck. With these sand hospital accommodations provided by the






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dams on each side, the profile of the canal Commission, but arrangements were also was successfully cut. In a distance of made with the various municipalities to six miles, no less than 2,362,000 cubic take care of any cases requiring attenyards were thus deposited.

tion. The single mishap during the entire The canal is crossed by two road work occurred at the terminus on the bridges, five railway bridges, and sixteen North Sea. The quay walls of the inner wire-rope ferries.

wire-rope ferries. The road bridge at harbor of the Elbe lock rest on piles in Haltenau is carried on double pontoons; marshy soil. When, after the comple- and that at Rendsburg, sustaining the tion of the piles, the soil between them road to Itzehoe, has a hydraulic swingwas excavated, one of them yielded to the span of 164 feet; the two railway swing outside pressure, but it was re- bridges at Rendsburg, of 164 feet paired. Apart from this, the only mis- span, bear each

one line of the haps were a few unimportant slips here Rendsburg-Neumenster Railway,

and and there, as already mentioned.

that at Taterpfhal, three miles from The eight or ten thousand workmen Brunsbüttel, the single line of the Elmsemployed on the canal were housed and horn-IIvidding Railway. The West Holboarded in barracks built and managed stein Railway and a road cross the canal



at Grunenthal on an arch bridge of 514- estimated revenue for the year of 5,000,feet span, 137.8 feet in height. The Kiel- 000 marks, the total receipts amounted Flushing Railway and the Kiel-Eckeon- to only 900,000 marks. Only 750 steamforde road cross at Levansan.

ers and 9,300 sailing vessels, mostly The Kiel canal is excellently protected small ones, passed through. The amount at both ends against the possible attack of traffic, however, has steadily increased. of hostile vessels. The entrance from During last year there were more than the Baltic is two miles south of Fried- 35,000 vessels reported as having passed richsort, where the strongly fortified through the canal, and the total revenue coasts of the bay are only 2,500 feet from amounted to more than 3,000,000 marks. each other. At the other end, the open In five years after its opening the traffic sea, where a hostile fleet is not prevented had more than doubled, and almost from maneuvering by the sand banks, trebled as regards tonnage. An average lies at

distance of about thirty of 500 war vessels pass through the canal miles from the entrance; while each year, and the test as regards navigthe batteries on the island of Neu- ability for very large craft has been sucwerk would protect the passage of ves- cessfully met. Such deep-draught vessels turning the corner at Cuxhaven, in sels as the German cruiser Fürst Bistheir course from Brunsbüttel to Wil- marck and the Japanese cruiser Yakumo helmshafen, as the island lies north of have passed through without accident that corner, and about twenty-two miles and at a good rate of speed. There has from the entrance of the canal.

been no interruption from ice, and it has The Kiel canal is a brilliantly illumi- been possible to maintain traffic even nated waterway. Electric lights, 800 feet when the sound and the belt have been apart on tangents and much closer on the blocked with ice. It has recently been curves, give a full-moon glare from en- decided to greatly enlarge the canal so as trance to entrance, and even the fogs of to allow of the passage of war-ships of winter interfere little with navigation. the latest type, which are of much larger

As is usually noted in the case of great tonnage than the largest in commission ship canals, the traffic on the Kaiser Wil- when the big ditch was dug. This work helm canal, during the first year after its will cost many millions of dollars and opening, was disappointing. Against an take several years to complete.


Ultimate End of Small Potatoes

By W. D. Graves


OTATOES are so universally an speak reverently, more potatoes per acre article of diet that they are rarely than any other unirrigated land in the thought of in any other connec- United States, are located about three

tion; and the assertion that they fifths of the whole number of potatoenter almost as universally into the starch factories in the country, making makeup of the clothes we wear as into 6,000 of the 15,000 tons annually proour food, would be apt to be received, by duced in "the realm of the good King many, with some skepticism. Yet such Theodore." statement would scarcely exceed the There, planted by machinery, cultitruth. Fully four-fifths of the solid mat- vated and dug by machines, are raised ter in the ubiquitous tuber is starch; and some of the finest "murphys" in the potato starch, though costing rather world, specially sought for the Boston more than that, derived from maize or and New York markets, and shipped for wheat, is much preferred, and almost ex- seed to all parts of the United States. clusively used, for sizing the yarns used But, for every barrel of the large, smoot in weaving cotton, wool, and silk goods. tubers such as one sees in the city mar

Up in the northern extremity of kets, there is half a barrel or more of Maine, where the average annual snow- small and inferior ones, which are fall is about 110 inches, and where the worked into starch; while, in years of growing season is barely five months plenty and low prices, many of the finer long, in the county of Aroostook, which ones go the same way. produces, on the soil where once grew the Potatoes in Aroostook are as wheat in "punkin pine," of which old carpenters Dakota, and all calendars there begin and

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