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olution is made from rear to front. The the figure the play of features charactermerchant dealt in aluminum goods, and istic of a musician playing to charm his some 200 of these articles are wired to hearers, the movements of the lips, the moving floor. Thus, a large, and at fingers and breath being the same as that the same time very unusual and striking of a living man. display is secured. A small electric mo- The principal motive power of the tor, concealed below the floor, furnished flute-player was a spring that drove nine the power that moves the platform. sets of bellows in nests of three each,
by which wind of varying intensity was
produced. Separate reservoirs or tanks Automatons of the
were put in communication with each of Eighteenth Century
the series, and these different reser
voirs opened to a common pipe leading AUTOMATONS have been known for
to the mouth of the automaton. The hundreds of years, for, even as early same spring drove a toothed cylinder, as the sixteenth century, there was in the like that of a music box; and, according Cathedral of Strassburg a carved group to the requirements, the projections on in wood representing Samson kneeling the cylinder automatically admitted a on a lion, whose jaws he would pull open. breath of air of greater or less intensity. The apogee of automaton construction, however,
reached in Paris in 1738, when the famous works of Vaucanson appeared. The Flute-Player (see cut) is the most celebrated of them all. It is said that the idea came to Vaucanson one day in the Garden of the Tuilleries while looking at the statue of a faun playing on a flute. He broached the subject to his uncle, who could see only the folly of a madman in it, and threatened him with confinement under a lettre de cachet Again, a series of levers served to if he persisted. To avoid this, Vaucan- move the fingers of the artist, while other son pretended to drop the matter; but springs opened and closed the lips, thus three years later he took it up vigorously giving the automaton the appearance of and his calculations were So accurate life. that the pieces which he had ordered This wonderful piece of mechanism is from various artisans fitted together ex- still preserved at Vienna. actly. The servant who had assisted him Another automaton of Vaucanson's is was so overcome when he heard the har- the Drummer or Tambourine-Player, this monious tones produced by the statue, being a kind of a long drum which was that he fell on his knees before his mas- one of the necessary accessories of the ter, whom he considered as a kind of celebrated fêtes of Provence. The demi-god.
mechanism of this work was similar in The flute-player measured five and a all respects to that of the Flute-Player. half feet in height, and was seated upon Altogether the most remarkable crea square pedestal, in which a portion of ation of Vaucanson was a duck, shown the mechanism was contained ; and what between the two other figures, the whole rendered it more attractive still, was the illustration being taken from an old fact that its maker had seen fit to give handbill. It was capable of eating and
AUTOMATONS OF VAUCANSON.
drinking, of paddling itself about in the be constructed by any man of ordinary water, and of uttering the familiar cry mechanical ability. An undershot wheel, of its living fellows. In order to give with connecting shaft and pinions as well this piece all the appearance of life, it as operating levers, is built to a strong was so arranged that it could move its frame and platform. A fly-wheel with wings, stand upon its feet, turn its neck belt is attached to the main shaft; and a
to the right or left or stretch it out to spool and drum are also built to the . pick up grain like a living fowl. The frame, for use when a derrick is operconstruction of the wings was the object ated. This spool and drum may be left of especial attention, and these were re- off where the motor is desired to supply produced with all their cavities, articula- only power by belt or shaft. tions, and bones.
When used in placer mines, water to operate the motor is taken from the main pipe line, the connections being made by
a section of fire hose. This fire-hose conMovable Water-Motor
nection allows the motor to be moved THE accompanying illustration shows from one point to another, a feature that
a type of movable water-motor which makes it very convenient in placer mines. is easily built, and which is very handy In the operation of a derrick for lifting around a placer mine or ranch where boulders from the diggings, and in dragwater is available and where power for ging logs down a mountain-side in lumdistribution or use at varying points is ber camps, this motor is especially condesired. In several western placer mines, venient, as well as economical, the usual a motor of this kind is used to operate method of using a steam donkey engine the derrick and crane in lifting huge being many times more expensive and boulders from the diggings; also in sup- requiring much more attention. The plying power for the mine machine shops, mechanism is in marked contrast to the or any of the odd jobs where power is slow and laborious methods employed by needed.
miners, lumbermen, etc., in the past. The mechanism is very simple, and can -D. H. STOVALL.
New Enclosed Switch
be attached to the switch handle, per
mitting the operator to open or close the TI
HE accompanying cut shows a type switch from any position along the ma
of enclosed switch recently placed chine. upon the market, which possesses sev- The switch is, of course, protected eral valuable and novel features. The
from mechanical injury by the case surentire apparatus is enclosed
rounding it, the case also eliminating all fireproof case, which allows the use
possibility of accidental contact with live of open-link fuses without the dan
wires. The cover is hinged and held ger of the fuse metal being thrown
firmly in place by a latch. When this about in case they are blown. The fuses latch is loosened, the cover may be form part of the switch blade, and may be
thrown back, and free access obtained So connected as to be dead when the
to the interior for inspection or repairs, switch is open. It is, of course, well
as shown in the figure. This switch is known that link fuses are cheaper to re- made in three styles, two- and three-pole place than enclosed fuses.
single-throw and four-pole double-throw. With the double-throw switch, when
The switch shown in the illustration is used for starting induction motors, of the four-pole double-throw type. The heavier fuses may be used for the start
design of the others, however, is similar ing side than for the running side in principle.. which is an advantage not possessed by any other form of switch now on the market.
Canadian Tobacco The whole combination is mounted on SINCE its earliest history, tobacco has a slate base and enclosed in a fireproof been generally regarded as almost a case, only one handle projecting through tropical product, the growing of it in
Connecticut being long considered as a sort of agricultural freak performance. It seems, however, that Canadian tobacco also will presently assume position of importance in the commercial world.
In the counties of Kent and Essex, in western Ontario, many farmers have abandoned sugar-beet raising to engage in the production of tobacco. Last year the crop was very profitable in this section, bringing the planters an average of $104 per acre. The average yield was 1,300 pounds to the acre, and the average price about 3 cents per pound. One farmer, on something less than six acres of land, raised a crop which sold
for $1,006, or over $167 the cover. If the switch is mounted di
for each acre. rectly on the machine, the operator is The Canadian Government is encourable to reach the handle quickly when- aging this industry in every way possiever necessary. When used on a lathe ble, and will shortly establish an experiwith a long bed, a horizontal lever can mental tobacco farm in Essex county.
When President Roosevelt set foot on foreign soil at Colon, Isthmus of Panama, he broke another historic precedent. No other President ever left his native land during his term of office. Although his stay on the isthmus was so short, President Roosevelt made a careful first-hand investigation of the work under way, showing the same eager spirit and half-scornful disregard of personal comfort, which have distinguished him on so many other occasions. All along the canal zone he talked with the men, took a hand at running their machines, heard their complaints and suggestions, and inspired them with something of his own bubbling energy and enthusiasm. It is said to be his greatest ambition to go down into history as the President who built the Panama Canal.
STEREOGRAPH, COPYRIGHT, 1906, BY H. C. WHITE 09., N. Y.
THE PRESIDENT (IN WHITE) ON REAR PLATFORM OF TRAIN IN CULEBRA CUT.