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most distinguished of English marine gold ore from the mines of the Witengineers predicts that the greater part watersrand in South Africa, driving of the world's ships will soon be driven street cars in Dublin, Tokio and the City by steam turbines.
of Mexico, and lighting city streets in That the steam turbine has proved its New Zealand, Canada and the United superiority over the old-style engine may States. be gathered from the fact that turbines. Finally, to apply the supreme test, beof the Curtis and Parsons types, of an fore which all criticism becomes dumb, aggregate capacity of 2,000,000 horse- all disapproval vanishes, the steam turpower, are already in use, and this within bine must be a great success because it six years after they were placed on the has already made the inventors of the market. Steam turbines are hoisting principal two types millionaires.
Wiring the Wilderness
By Sampson S. Burton
TWISTING, snaky path Pyramids. Upon its completion, the voice 3 has been cut through the of Cecil Rhodes will echo in triumph
heart of Africa. For five across the continent of his adoption, for thousand six hundred it is due to his foresight and perseverance miles a telegraph wire is that the project is now almost com
being stretched through pleted. Cecil Rhodes, looking at a map swamp and jungle. When five hundred of the dark continent, placed his finger miles more are strung, Egypt may talk upon Ujiji, the place where Stanley with South Africa, and the Englishmen found Livingstone, and through that in Cape Town can reserve their camels at point drew the line which would first Cairo in advance for their trip to the point toward the civilization of all Af
rica. And now, as was at first planned, one of the chief stations along the line of the new overland and overhead telegraph is the meeting place of Stanley and Livingstone, thus emphasizing the wonderful progress which man has made in the dark continent since 1871.
Cecil Rhodes declared before a meeting of the British South Africa Company in the fall of 1892 that it was his ambition to link Cape Town and Cairo with an overland telegraph. The line would have both a commercial and political significance. England could be brought within quick and direct communication with her African possessions, and an impetus would be given to the growing commerce and trade of Africa by providing a cheap means of communication. Messages could be sent for about twenty-five cents per word, which
is less than the cable NATIVE LABORERS STRETCHING THÉ WIRE.
At that time about eighteen hundred miles of the line had already been built to accommodate existing needs, the greater part of this a mount being built northward from Cape Town. Since 1892, sixteen hundred miles of wire have been added along the northward stretch, of which nearly fourteen hundred miles are strung along the main line of the route. Southward from the other end of the continent about fifteen hundred miles more are to be found. Of the remaining nine hundred miles out of the originally proposed fifty-six hundred, four hundred and fifty will in all probability be spanned by wireless telegraphy, and there are between four hundred and fifty and five hundred more to be built before the scheme will be completed.
Every foot of the three thousand miles
A Repair Station.
which have been built in the last thirteen years was constructed at great expenditure of money and labor. A surveying party, consisting of three white men and several natives was sent in advance to lay out the path for the construction party. The surveyors traveled through forest, jungle, and swamp, over mountains, ravines, rivers, and veldt, cut off
tion party found the greatest difficulty in CAIRO
securing proper facilities for transporting the materials and getting labor to carry on the work. Special boats were constructed in England and shipped to Africa to help carry the materials along the
rivers. Stations were established and WADY HALFA
maintained at the principal points, where enough of the materials would be
brought together to build a certain porBERBER tion of the route. There were one hun
dred engineers in this party and several KHARTUM
thousand natives. At one time the
negroes became frightened at small-pox LEASHODA
which broke out in camp and many of them fairly evaporated into the forest. Building materials and tools were scattered broadcast for miles around as the
terrified natives threw them away. They 5 BRITISH
were induced to return to work only by
TAFRIC. dint of tactful coaxing. The success of
the expedition depended very largely CONGO Ager NYAN upon the handling of all these native
VICTORIA workers. SAFREE STATE
Many engineering difficulties were encountered in building the line. Where
the wire had to be stretched over swamps TANGANYIKA AFRICA or rivers the poles were mounted high A ABERCORN ?
in air to accommodate the great sag. KARONGA
Sometimes it was necessary that a swamp ..NYASSA be skirted on account of the great weight
of wire which would have come between TTJOHNSTON
the two poles. In crossing the Zambesi RHODE SIA
great poles were erected which withstood the tremendous strain and weight of the span of wire. These poles can be seen for miles around and stand as monuments to the vigor with which the undertaking has been carried on, All the poles
used in this work are hollow and made DELAGOA BAY of steel.
Trouble shooting along this overland telegraph has its peculiar difficulties.
Wandering elephants and other denizens CAPE COLONY)
of African forests take especial delight CAPE TOWN
in rubbing their backs against the telegraph poles, with the result that the supports often give way. Then a torrential
rain is likely to set in and the rising Victoria and Ujiji will be covered by wireless. floods carry off the telegraph bodily,
wire, posts and poles. In addition to from the rest of the world and carrying building the telegraph lines, the party has with them only the simplest necessities cut out a rough roadway, varying in of life. At times they would be hundreds width from fifty to one hundred feet. of miles in advance of the rest of the This will aid the trouble men in repairparty and they rarely heard from the ing the line and locating points of broken builders. The engineers in the construc- connection.
under construction. The distance between Port
to be dragged through the forest and and to Africa commercially. It is one around swamps. Along one section of of Cecil Rhodes's plans for a greater the route of about 200 miles in length, Africa and a larger Empire. The other the cost of transportaiton amounted to scheme is the trans-African railway, $150 a ton. This construction expense with which this plan must not be conwould have been especially heavy over fused, as the routes of the two great the four hundred and fifty miles which it projects are not the same. These two is now the purpose to span by wireless, paths will open Africa to more complete This part is from Ujiji to Port Victoria, investigation. What wonderful reHere the country is very rough and sources they may reveal to the world, broken and it is estimated that the ex- now can only be conjectured.