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most distinguished of English marine gold ore from the mines of the Witengineers predicts that the greater part watersrand in South Africa, driving of the world's ships will soon be driven street cars in Dublin, Tokio and the City by steam turbines.

of Mexico, and lighting city streets in That the steam turbine has proved its New Zealand, Canada and the United superiority over the old-style engine may States. be gathered from the fact that turbines Finally, to apply the supreme test, beof the Curtis and Parsons types, of an fore which all criticism becomes dumb, aggregate capacity of 2,000,000 horse- all disapproval vanishes, the steam turpower, are already in use, and this within bine must be a great success because it six years after they were placed on the has already made the inventors of the market. Steam turbines are hoisting principal two types millionaires.

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Wiring the Wilderness

By Sampson S. Burton

TWISTING, Snaky path Pyramids. Upon its completion, the voice

has been cut through the of Cecil Rhodes will echo in triumph heart of Africa. For five across the continent of his adoption, for thousand six hundred it is due to his foresight and perseverance miles a telegraph wire is that the project is now almost com

being stretched through pleted. Cecil Rhodes, looking at a map swamp and jungle. When five hundred of the dark continent, placed his finger miles more are strung, Egypt may talk upon Ujiji, the place where Stanley with South Africa, and the Englishmen found Livingstone, and through

that in Cape Town can reserve their camels at point drew the line which would first Cairo in advance for their trip to the point toward the civilization of all Af

rica. And now, as was at first planned, one of the chief stations along the line of the new overland and overhead telegraph is the meeting place of Stanley and Livingstone, thus emphasizing the wonderful progress which man has made in the dark continent since 1871.

Cecil Rhodes declared before a meeting of the British South Africa Company in the fall of 1892 that it was his ambition to link Cape Town and Cairo with an overland telegraph. The line would have both a commercial and political significance. England could be brought within quick and direct communication with her African possessions, and an impetus would be given to the growing commerce and trade of Africa by providing a cheap means of communication. Messages could be sent for about twenty-five cents per word, which





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At that time about eighteen hundred miles of the line had already been built to accommodate existing needs, the greater part of this a mount being built northward from Cape Town. Since 1892. sixteen hundred miles of wire have been added along the northward stretch, of which nearly fourteen hundred miles are strung along the main line of the route. Southward from the other end of the continent about fifteen hundred miles more are to be found. Of the remaining nine hundred miles out of the originally proposed fifty-six hundred, four hundred and fifty will in all probability be spanned by wireless telegraphy, and there are between four hundred and fifty and five hundred more to be built. before the scheme will be completed.

Every foot of the three thousand miles


which have been built in the last thirteen years was constructed at great expenditure of money and labor. A surveying party, consisting of three white men and several natives was sent in advance to lay out the path for the construction party. The surveyors traveled through forest, jungle, and swamp, over mountains, ravines, rivers, and veldt, cut off



tion party found the greatest difficulty in CAIRO

securing proper facilities for transporting the materials and getting labor to carry on the work. Special boats were con

structed in England and shipped to AfDASSUAN

rica to help carry the materials along the

rivers. Stations were established and WADY HALFA

maintained at the principal points, where enough of the materials would be

brought together to build a certain por

BERBER tion of the route. There were one hunEGYPT

dred engineers in this party and several KHARTUM thousand natives.

At one

time the negroes became frightened at small-pox

which broke out in camp and many of EASHODA

them fairly evaporated into the forest. Building materials and tools were scattered broadcast for miles around as the

terrified natives threw them away. They BRITISH were induced to return to work only by

HEAST AFRIG dint of tactful coaxing. The success of L. ALBERTO SONICTORIA

the expedition depended very largely CONGO

NYAN upon the handling of all these native VICTORIA

workers. FREE STATE

Many engineering difficulties were en

countered in building the line. Where LAKE

the wire had to be stretched over swamps TANGANYIKA AFRICA or rivers the poles were mounted high SABERCÓRN

in air to accommodate the great sag. KARONGA

Sometimes it was necessary that a swamp L.NYASSA

be skirted on account of the great weight

of wire which would have come between TTJOHNSTON the two poles. In crossing the Zambesi


great poles were erected which withstood

the tremendous strain and weight of the SALISSURY

span of wire. These poles can be seen


for miles around and stand as monuUMTALI

ments to the vigor with which the undertaking has been carried on, All the poles

used in this work are hollow and made DELAGOA BAY

of steel.

Trouble shooting along this overland DURBAN

telegraph has its peculiar difficulties. CAPE COLONY

Wandering elephants and other denizens

of African forests take especial delight CAPE TOWN

in rubbing their backs against the tele

graph poles, with the result that the supCAPE-TO-CAIRO TELEGRAPH.

ports often give way. Then a torrential Black line shows sections completed; dotted line parts rain is likely to set in and the rising

under construction. The distance between Port Victoria and Ujiji will be covered by wireless.

floods carry off the telegraph bodily,

wire, posts and poles. In addition to from the rest of the world and carrying building the telegraph lines, the party has with them only the simplest necessities cut out a rough roadway, varying in of life. At times they would be hundreds width from fifty to one hundred feet. of miles in advance of the rest of the This will aid the trouble men in repairparty and they rarely heard from the ing the line and locating points of broken builders. The engineers in the construc- connection.




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In addition to the expense of cutting pense of installing a wireless service over roadways the cost of the enterprise has this part will be much less than the cost been tremendously increased by the un- of building the almost impossible oversatisfactory portage facilities. Where head wire construction. there were no rivers to aid the construc- The completion of this telegraph will tion party in securing materials, they had mean a great deal to England, politically,

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to be dragged through the forest and and to Africa commercially. It is one around swamps. Along one section of of Cecil Rhodes's plans for a greater the route of about 200 miles in length, Africa and a larger Empire. The other the cost of transportaiton amounted to scheme is the trans-African railway, $150 a ton. This construction expense with which this plan must not be conwould have been especially heavy over fused, as the routes of the two great the four hundred and fifty miles which it projects are not the same. These two is now the purpose to span by wireless. paths will open Africa to more complete This part is from Ujiji to Port Victoria. investigation. What wonderful reHere the country is very rough and sources they may reveal to the world, broken and it is estimated that the ex- now can only be conjectured.

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