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the manufacture of ribbons. “Laying moment upon the third step, namely,– warp” it is called. The spools are placed the winding of "quills” for the shuttles. upon large racks or frames, each spool This operation is known to the ribbon setting loosely upon a pin around which weaver as "quilling” or “doubling." it revolves, the thread or "end" as it is This process is somewhat similar to now known, passes through one slit in winding the silk upon the spools, except a fine comb-like gauge together with that the thread is wound from the spools from eighty to seven hundred other ends, upon the small bobbins or quills, that, according to the width the ribbon is to contained in the shuttles are destined to be. The proper assembling of these ends play between the warp-threads. by means of the above mentioned gauge, The ribbon loom itself is a marvel of forms the warp, which is passed smooth- mechanical ingenuity and simplified conly around the periphery of the large struction. The principle of ribbonwheel shown in the picture. This wheel weaving, is exactly the same as in the slowly revolves and collects the warp. weaving of broad silk, piece goods or It is then ready to be placed in the loom. carpets, only it is reproduced in mul

Before proceeding to a description of tiple. Instead of weaving one ribbon at the looms it is necessary to dwell for a a time, as is the case with the piece goods

or carpet loom, the ribbon loom weaves simultaneously from thirty-six to seventy pieces of ribbon, according to the width, of course.

The two looms shown in the illustration are twenty feet in length, and were weaving thirty-six ribbons each, of varying widths and colors at one time. It will not be difficult to discern the small, handle - like shuttles, each one containing its "quill” wound with filling. These shuttles move in unison back and forth between the warp-threads.

The "harness" of ti e loom on the right can be plainly seen. Each one of the warp-ends passes through an eyelet in the center of the harness and is thus controlled individually, being raised or lowered automatically by the operation of the loom. The woven ribbon is automatically

wound around a re"QUILLING" OR "DOUBLING."

volving beam, each One of the many operations in the weaving of silk ribbon.

ribbon being provided

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with a guide or drum with high thin finished in various ways, principally by flanges so constructed that each piece of ironing to secure crispness and luster. ribbon may be readily pulled out for in- After this it is ready for the blocking spection by the weaver or the foreman. machines, where the ribbons are wound Each loom has a capacity of from fifteen in ten-yard lengths from large cree!s to twenty yards of ribbon per day,—that upon the small cardboard drums or bolts is, of course, for each individual piece that are so familiar to every one who has being woven in the loom.

ever purchased or handled a piece of After a warp is nearly exhausted, a new ribbon. one takes the place of the old. The T here yet remains to cover the ends of ends of the old warp are twisted to the the bolt with the manufacturer's label and ends of the new warp in opposite direc- mark thereon the style, color and number tions, and the operation of the loom of the ribbon, when it is ready to be gradually draws the new warp through boxed and shipped to the jobber, who, in the harness, and thus the weaving is con- turn, sells it to the retailer, from whom tinued,—becoming practically endless in my lady obtains this indispensable mate· its application.

rial for her bows, and other milliner; After a piece of ribbon is woven, it embellishments. So slight a thing as a must be inspected for imperfections and ribbon requires much labor.

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Getting Our Third Teeth

By H. D. Jones


HE flippant remark of the in Philadelphia. The industry has grown drummer from Philadel- to its present mammoth proportions phia, that if there were within a comparatively short time, for any gnashing of teeth in the dentist of old days made the teeth the other world seventy- for his customers in a room adjoining the

five per cent of the gnash operating department. They were usuing would be done by artificial teeth ally ill-fitting and being made from made in America was not far from the bone or ivory would not stand the wear mark. America leads the world in the long. The discovery of a way to make artificial tooth industry and Philadelphia false teeth by a composition that was supplies a large percentage of the total practically indestructible marked the beoutput. False teeth are shipped from ginning of a new era in the ability of the this country to the remote corners of the human family to repair the ravages of earth. They are to be found in the time. mouths of Japanese, Chinese, Hindoos, The first thing to do in making artiand even, it is very likely, assisting in the ficial teeth of a particular variety is to mastication of the daily rations of the fashion a mould. The greatest care has Zulus of South Africa. Indeed, it is not to be taken in the making of this mould. beyond the limit of possibility that can- The work is done by hand, the workmen nibal feasts are conducted with the aid of being highly paid and of the most skilled American-made artificial teeth.

order. In fact, from the designer to the The largest plant in the world for the girls who polish the teeth, the employes making of artificial teeth is to be found of an artificial tooth factory are all of a

all day at long tables, examining for defects, and polishing and finishing. The delicate touch of a girl, educated so that the smallest defect is noticed in an instant, is required to prevent any tooth being sent from the factory with an uneven surface or a poor edge. The slightest flaw will cause rejection, for there can be no discomfort

superior grade and draw unusually good pay. When the mould has been shaped and tooled to the exact form required, it is filled with the soft composition of which the teeth are made and the cover placed on to press the composition into the shape of the teeth. The mould is then placed in an oven and the composition baked to a certain point, when it is handed over to an operator who trims off the rough edges and shapes the tooth into the finished article. After that it goes to the furnace for a final and prolonged baking at a tremendous heat.

It must not be supposed that the tooth is finished when it is taken from the furnace. It may be imagined how a tooth would feel if even the minutest part of the surface were rough or over-sharp. The teeth go direct from the furnace to the girls who sit



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worse than that of a sharp or rough- for such work than men. A large busiedged tooth. The teeth are mounted on ness is done in these tinted teeth and the cards and brought to the line of girls, and art of coloring to match samples is quite the examiners pass or reject them with as important in its way as the making of incredible swiftness.

the teeth to match the shape of the genuWhen the teeth are finally polished off ine ones. and ready for shipment they are sent by Sometimes the factory receives an orthe million to foreign countries or ship- der for what are called "freak teeth," ped for domestic use. This is the general that is teeth so different from those usutrade. By far the most important part ally found in the human head and of so of the industry from a scientific point of peculiar a color that the laboratory exview is the making of false teeth to order, perts are at work for hours before they the fitting out of the faddists who wish can hit upon the right thing. If the their teeth made to a particular pattern toothless customer will pay the price, he and the matching of teeth for those who or she can have teeth of any shape or are desirous of preventing the world color desired, for it is only a question of knowing that the teeth are false.

turning experts loose on the order. But Men frequently want teeth made to the faddist in false teeth must pay high match their tobacco-stained grinders. for. such luxuries. The teeth that are Then the coloring work done has to be of sent out carded by the hundred, are quite an expert order and here again the a different matter from teeth made to trained eyes of women are employed, for order after the experts of the factory they have been educated from childhood have prepared special moulds and mixed to match colors and are far better fitted composition for a single set of teeth.

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