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PHOTO BY 4.
OLD FORT CADY WITH SODA LAKE IN THE DISTANCE.
drilling through which, and through the analysis made a few months ago from “slat” in dryer parts of the marsh, other samples selected at random, may be of deposits of equal value may be found interest :
In addition to these deposits of sodiuni Sodium chloride ....... 98.79 salts there are many others. Gypsum, Calcium chloride ...... .33 particularly in the transparent form Calcium sulphate ...... .86 known as Selenite, is very abundant. In Alumina and silica. ....Trace. many places along the shore line of the But the second of these salt deposits dry lake bed, and further back in the seems even more interesting than the hills, are inexhaustible supplies of it. The first. At a depth of about seventeen feet remarkable thing about it, too, is its pur- throughout all the sections of the lake ity, the only impurities being clay or where salt is found to any extent, the sand, which I have removed from small prospector comes upon very strong salt samples by washing. I presume the brines, flowing from crevices and fissures same thing could be done with larger in the rock salt. The brines are pure quantities by adopting wholesale methods. white in color, and are as clear as was
The third feature of Danby Lake, and ever bubbling spring when they pour out. of the lesser Soda Lake as well, is the Evaporation, of course, produces the very vast quantity of salt which the crusts of finest grade of salt from these saturated both contain. Cheap as this common solutions formed in the laboratory of commodity is, there is no adequate way Nature. to tell of the value of these deposits. It Above the brines and the rock salt are occurs here in three forms—first as rock the surface deposits—hundreds of acres salt; second as pure salt brine, and third of crust, composed of salt and clay and as impure salt, mixed in surface deposits sand, capable of working up into a good with clay, other salts of soda and sand. grade of salt, though by no means so
Prospectors have proved that the rock pure as either the brines or the rock salt formation underlies more than six salt. hundred acres of the lake bed. It starts There are, of course, many other minor within a few inches of the surface and salines found in this dried-out lakebed, goes down to an undetermined depth, and there is one of them, which, owing to supposedly twenty-five or thirty feet. its size and importance as well as its Slabs of the mineral, taken from near the bearing on a very important industry of surface, are often pure white and almost the Pacific Coast, should also be menas transparent as window glass. In fact, tioned. To my mind, looking at it from it is quite commonly conceded to be the the view point of the industries of Cali
fornia, it is more important than either One of the most remarkable things the soda or the salt beds. And that is about this lakebed at Danby as well as
ige mountain of carbonate of lime, the one at Death Valley, and of Mono situated a few miles from Danby Lake. Lake, is the way the deposits grow. If
This mountain is practically a huge a prospector removes part of the crust mine of Portland cement, one of the from one of these lakes, letting the thick most valuable mineral products of the entire coast. It covers more than 400 acres, and in addition to the material contained in it there are any number of beds of clays on the lake, especially adapted for use in the making of the cement. As is well known, first class deposits of minerals suitable for the making of this cement are by no means numerous, and each year the increased demand for dams, irrigating canals and other structures to which cement is adapted put greater and greater strain on the few mines that produce the raw materials. Doubtless, too, judging from the stories of prospectors who operate around Danby and Soda Lakes, there are still more extensive beds of cement-making materials in this very region.
Rough FORMATION OF Soda Crystals. The products of this old lake bed, which is only one of several scattered up slime beneath lie bare to the sun, in a and down the desert, can be briefly and day or two a second crust will have interestingly enumerated under the sub- formed, which, in due course of time, head of by-products to the great central becomes as thick and as rich in salts as mineral of the whole deposit, which is of was the first. This, in a way, makes the course, sodium. From it can be pro- deposit inexhaustible, if worked juduced—and doubtless will be when some diciously and by sections. enterprising firm takes hold of the lake Fresh material is being brought in conbed—soda ash, caustic soda, chlorate of stantly by the small streams flowing unsoda, Glauber's salts, sodium hyposul- derground from the surrounding hills, phite, muriatic acid, sal soda and washing and as fast as the mire beneath becomes compounds. In addition to these there leached-out it can be given à rest just are the gypsum, the salt, and the cement, in the same manner as agricultural lands all occurring in practically pure form, re are treated, and, by the time some other quiring, in the case of the salt at least, end of the bed has been “harvested,” the very little in the way of refining. With first part will have thrown up a valuable the cement and the gypsum, the work crust again. In this manner the borax will be somewhat different, yet it seems fields of Death Valley have been worked that the vast quantities would more than year after year, and by like method the make up for any minor deficiencies in soda beds of Danby and Soda Lakes may purity which may occur.
Feeding Poultry by Machinery
By Franklin Horton
tem is ested in fatterthan $90.
SMATTENING poultry by mouths, filling them with semi-liquid
machinery is a new indus- food, and forcing the wet meal down the try in the United States, fowl's throat after inserting the tube in but already several hun- its beak. The fat capons and other pouldred persons are engaged try of France won an enviable place, and
in it and more than $900,- the process was transplanted to England. 000 has been invested in fattening plants. A Sussex man recently invented a ma
The system is called “cramming.” It chine for forcing the food down the was originated in France, where the throats of chickens, and this apparatus growers of poultry still make a practice has been introduced in America. The acof taking small funnels with rubber companying illustration shows an Ameri
can-made machine as employed in twentyfour fattening establishments in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas and Missouri. A sheet metal receptacle which will hold four gallons of food is fastened upon three legs, one of which is attached to a wheel so that the appliance may be moved easily. Running from this is a rubber nozzle a foot long, tapering from the size of a man's thumb at the top to that of his little finger at the bottom. A lever is connected with the can at the top in such a way that when a treadle is depressed the food is forced through this rubber nozzle.
When the operator wishes to feed a fowl, he grasps it by the legs, opens its bill, and thrusts the rubber tube down the throat until the nozzle has reached almost to the crop. Then he holds his hand over the crop and presses the treadle until the crop is So expert do some of the operators be- long, two feet wide, and eighteen inches come that they feed four hundred chick- high, accommodating a dozen fowls. ens an hour with the machine.
filled with food, deterFEEDING HEN BY MACHINERY. A tube is forced down the bird's throat. The machine is operated by treadle. mining this by feeling.
These coops are placed in tiers of six “Why is the feeding done with ma- each, and hold 15,000 chickens. Across chinery?” a fattener was asked, and he the front of each coop is a trough for replied: “Simply because the chickens food and water. The fowls are not given will fatten in half the time, become more room because they lose flesh when plumper, and have a better flavor. It is allowed space for exercise.
well known that poultry fattened in the For the first week the chickens are fed ordinary way will reach a certain point a mixture of corn meal, oat meal, and of development and then stop. Under milk, but this is given in the troughs. At the machine system, however, they have the end of seven days the fowls begin to to eat, and they must take on flesh. Then lose their appetite and the cramming mathere is no waste of food, and this is an chine is brought into use. The men fill important item."
the big bowls with the meal mixture, thin Advocates of the "cramming" system enough so it may be forced through the contend it is not cruel, and point out the nozzles readily. They feed the stock fact that after a chicken has been fed a twice a day for two weeks more and kill few times with the machine it will open them after they have been machine fed its beak voluntarily for the insertion of twenty-eight times. Machinery also is the nozzle.
used in preparing these fowls for market Four Chicago concerns fatten hun after they are fattened. In each of the dreds of thousands of chickens annually, larger plants a moving overhead trolley maintaining plants in a dozen different carries the fowl in front of a score of places and buying their stock from farm- men, each of whom does only a certain ers. In one of these fattening houses all part of the work, one removing the wing the space is taken up with coops built of feathers, another the tail feathers, etc., slats, each compartment being four feet until the dressing is completed.
Making Land from Ocean's Bed
By Paul Gyllstrom
E EATTLE is digging up the provided for the excavation of practically
sea bottom to create more all the Seattle tidelands at the head of land for herself. She is Elliott bay. The total volume of the fill growing and needs all the is estimated at 30,000,000 cubic yards.
elbow room she can get. As only about one-third of this is obtain
* Incidentally, better water- able by dredging, it was estimated that ways are being created.
the original canal plan would supply the The work, as conducted, was made rest. possible by a bill passed in the legislature Dredging was begun at a depth of in 1893, authorizing any person or com- thirty-five feet below low water at the pany to excavate water ways through entrance of the East Waterway in July, tide and shore lands, and with the ma- 1895, and this depth has been maintained terial so excavated to fill tide and shore for a width of 700 feet and for a distance lands in front of incorporated cities. The of 5,600 feet. Dredging was continued bill gives to the person or company per- until June, 1897, and during this period forming the work a first lien on all such an area of sixty-two acres was filled to lands as they may fill, for the cost of the grade, requiring 1,433,000 cubic yards of work, plus fifteen per cent profit. It also material. In August, 1900, dredging in authorizes streets and public places to be the East Waterway was resumed. filled and bulkheads to be constructed, The present interesting feature of the and the cost thereof, plus fifteen per cent work is in connection with the operation to be added to the lien on the land bene of the dredges. By this means a double fited.
purpose is served. More land is being It was immediately after the passage of added to the city, while waterways are this law that the Seattle and Lake Wash- deepened. The dual importance of the ington Waterway Company was organ- work immediately becomes manifest. ized, and it secured contracts with the While the early contract provides for State in 1893, '94 and '95. This contract creating 1,500 acres of tidelands, ap