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proximately 400 acres have been created started work in June, and both dredges up to the present time.
have been working continuously ever This work has largely been done by since. This has greatly increased the means of the hydraulic dredges, the land-making possibilities of the company, "Portland"and "Tacoma." These dredges although it is estimated that in two years are being operated in what is known as the dredge work in the waterway will the East Waterway. Leading to the land have been completed. As the material from each dredge is 2,000 feet of twenty- from that source is insufficient, the cominch dredge pipe. From the dredges the pany will have to make provision elsepipes are conducted to the land on pon- where for carrying on the operations. toons, this being made necessary because The work has been divided into secof the changing tides. At times the current tions or districts. Bulkheads of piles and makes the long line squirm about like a plank have been used to enclose these mammoth serpent, as flexibility is pro- districts, allowing them to be brought to vided for at the joining of the pipes. grade quickly, as it is unnecessary to From the land the lines are conducted place any material outside the lines of further on to the point where the making any particular district. In constructing of land is in progress. From the end of the fill with these bulkheads, a wide sluice each line is a continual stream of muck is built of planks at a point where the that has been pumped up from the bottom waste will run into the next district to of the bay, and forced along this distance be filled. At the inner end of the sluice of 2,000 feet. It is the settling of this the planking of the bulkhead is kept that results in more land.
enough above the level of the fill to proThe dredges will suck up and put vide a settling basin, to prevent as much ashore from 5,000 to 8,000 cubic yards of as possible the escape of material with material in twenty-four hours. Up to the the waste water. present year this work was largely done The material, when reaching the place by the dredge "Seattle," but in March it of deposit, is readily spread by the use was taken from the work and sent to San of shear boards. Muck rakes are used Francisco. The new dredge “Tacoma" to assist in this work. was launched early in the year, and put The filling has been done in such a on the work in April. The "Portland" manner that the land might only be filled as it is needed for business purposes. As the company has tried to fill in land only has been noted, the land is subjected to as it was needed. a lien, and when sold by the state, the
While this work is of a very important buyer secures it with the understanding character, providing for the expansion of that he has certain obligations to meet. business, it is being conducted quietly. Very often the land is bought purely as The two hydraulic dredges lie a distance a speculation. When a tract of land has out in the bay, and while clouds of smoke been made, a certificate is issued by the may be seen rolling from their respective state engineer to the land commissioner. stacks there is no great hullabaloo. In The state then issues a certificate to the fact, they are more quiet than the smallcompany, which is the same as a mort- est Sound tug. gage against the land. But in order to The great work is partially of a subsave the purchaser as much as possible marine character. At the rear of each any interest charges on this mortgage, dredge are mammoth screws, which are
continually stirring up the muck at the bottom of the bay. At the same time forceful pumps are at work sucking in this heterogeneous mass of ancient glacier deposit, and spitting it into the pipes. And these pumps are by no means particular about the morsels that are thus distributed. The appetites of the pumps have their limitations, as they never bite off a bigger piece than
they are able to disHYDRAULIC DREDGE AT Work.
pose of without trouble. The scene at the end of one of the In all, fufty men are engaged on the pipe lines is probably as interesting as work regularly. The dredge crew is any in connection with the work. The about five men, while the larger number, prismatic effect is not great, but one views known as leveemen, are stationed on land, many varying shades that the mud and devote their attention to the building causes. One second the stream emitted of bulkheads and to leveling off the land may be pure foamy white and the next it as it is formed. The work on land does may be of the murkiest hue. It is the lat- not call for any great technical knowlter that shows that the dredge has secured edge. In fact there is nothing connected a mouthful of the stuff that makes more with the work out on the flats that calls land. Shear-boards are provided for the for that. The real brains of the enterstream to strike against, so that the prise is in the office, where all the probspread of material may be adjacent to lems are figured out by men who are exland already made. Otherwise there perienced in engineering feats. This would be danger of hummocks forming may hardly be classified as a feat, but quite a distance beyond, and that would nevertheless it must be recognized as a somewhat interfere with the placing of work of considerable moment and one bulkheads and in other ways, also. that calls for scientific knowledge.
(HEN we understand each other, all in all;
have misunderstood; When nations understand each other in peace after they have
misunderstood each other in war; When fathers, mothers, children, friends, people, understand-all
understand all, — Oh! that must be heaven, there is nothing beyond.
Saddened Sir Thomas solitary state she attracts every eye.
None can help admiring the shapely lines THE 'HE saddest of all is "It might of the yacht, seen to advantage against
have been,” murmured Sir Thomas the sky line. The rigging has long since Lipton when he passed up the channel been disposed of, but the hull, from sento New York recently. Those who fol- timental reasons, Sir Thomas still retains. lowed the direction of his eyes as he Shamrock could at any time be taken spoke saw that he gazed reminiscently down from her pedestal, re-rigged and towards the Erie Basin, Brooklyn. Here, used as a sailboat.
used as a sailboat. It is not probable set on a pedestal that all may see is all that she will ever be put to any such use, that remains of Shamrock III.
but there are many who think that ShamDismantled and partly covered up, rock III is still a better boat than any Shamrock III is a beauty still. She is other Sir Thomas has sent over and that high_above the dirt and confusion of if he does challenge again the old yacht the Erie Basin shipyard, on a pedestal would make a good trial horse. At any especially erected for her, and in her rate she stands ready for use.
An Engine of the Past It is believed by the promoters of the
scheme that not only will it prove a THIS photograph illustrates how rail- source of profit to the company, but that
road trains were operated in the the example set in the proper baling of western part of the United States when the cotton produced on the company's the tracks were first laid. The locomo- plantations will ultimately have a good tive in question was driven by the old effect throughout the South. Should
this venture prove successful, it is claimed that a number of British capitalists will take up the scheme. The saving of middlemen's profits would of course be considerable with a mill raising its own supply of raw material.
Flash of Lightning THIS photograph illustrates one of the
beautiful effects of lightning displays. The picture was made almost by accident, as the photographer happened to be
standing on a dock on the shore of the LOCOMOTIVE OF BY-GONE DAYS.
Delaware Bay at the time it was taken.
sundown and, thinking that he might man who is standing back of its boiler, possibly "snap" a flash of lightning, the and was the first used on the Pacific photographer opened the lens of his coast. Compared with the modern loco
camera and awaited developments. He motive, it is indeed a pigmy, for its boiler
was fortunate enough to secure the repromerely is less than one-half the size of
duction shown in this picture. In addithe iron water pipe which is shown in the picture by its side. The engine is still in good condition and can be operated, but has been preserved as a relic of the old days of railroading in the United States. It has been named the Oregon Pony, as shown by the lettering on the tender.
To Bale Our Cotton THE dissatisfaction of British cotton
owners with the American method of baling cotton, and a desire to acquire an independence of speculators in cotton, has resulted in the formation of a company, which it is asserted has ample capital at its command, to buy and operate large plantations in Texas. The intention of the company, which is composed of manufacturers, is to raise the cotton, bale it in the most approved manner and ship it directly to the Lancashire mills.